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ITU J Faculty Arch: 5 (2)
Volume: 5  Issue: 2 - December 2008
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EDITORIAL
1.Editorial
Orhan Hacýhasanoðlu
Page II

DOSSIER ARTICLES
2.Space – the final frontier: Sustainability & housing standards
Conall Ó Catháin
Pages 1 - 8
This paper briefly describes how building control and ultimately housing standards developed in England from the twelfth up to the mid-twentieth century. It argues that once the medical and technical problems of human settlement were solved and standards began to be based on purely spatial considerations they became unsustainable, particularly with the mass ownership of private cars and low density urban sprawl.

3.When disasters hit sustainability
Seda Kundak
Pages 9 - 21
“Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (UN, 1987). In the last 20 years following this statement, world population suffered by numerous natural and man- made disasters so that they strived to protect their own existence prior to the future. However, most of the disasters were caused by un-sustainable attitudes of politicians, decision makers and communities. In this paper, the concept of sustainability will be discussed related to economic effects of probable earthquake in Istanbul. The study focuses on the economic losses by two different earthquake scenarios where replacement costs of damaged housing units and business interruption have been discussed. The results show that even in the worst case, there are always prevention measures to be taken to reduce impacts of an extreme event. In the case of Istanbul, the risks are not expanded homogenously in the city wide. Therefore, pioneered by the previous comprehensive strategic plans, the probable economic losses which reflect the current situation can be diminished in short or medium term period.

4.Sustainable tourism development and a governance model for Frig Valley
Ebru Kerimoðlu, Hale Çýracý
Pages 22 - 43
Tourism is known as a stable growth sector. If the revenues are distributed to the relevant stakeholders including the community justly and the efforts on tourism are based on a sustainable future target, this growth can be translated to development. With regard to tourism strategies, urban areas should be evaluated together with their rural areas, natural, historical and archaeological sites as well as their neighbouring cities. This means more relations between different levels of administrative structures, local governments as well as more stakeholders to take part in a proposed sustainable tourism governance strategy. In this study, detailed dynamics and interactions of different actors in tourism are analyzed in order to find out the appropriate governance model in sustainable tourism development by investigating Frig Valley, which lies in the borders of Kütahya, Afyon, Eskiþehir provinces in Turkey and having a great tourism potential, as a case study. Questionnaires are prepared for the actors that have legal responsibility in terms of tourism development and the ones are assumed to be closely related with tourism development in the area to understand their planning and collaboration abilities, awareness, expectations and suggestions. This is expected to bring about the importance of urban networks and institutional partnerships in sustainable tourism development and to introduce a framework by proposing a governance model includes all stakeholders in all administrative levels and to expose the responsibilities and relations of all the actors.

5.Material paradoxes and priorities in: “Architectural sustainability
Didem Baþ Yanarateþ
Pages 44 - 61
The sustainability is now becoming mainstream discourse of modern architecture and through either scientific and social approaches, many analytic and theoretical studies meaning of it have been made and are going to be made. There is no doubt that these studies have considerable contributions on the architectural discourse and the intentions but it is also an undeniable fact that the environment we live is generally quite far from healing through any progress in sustainability. Moreover, the unpleasant conditions contradict to almost the whole of intention can be lived in the mean of architecture of our built environment.

The paper indicates the contradictions between the executions and the intention in architectural sustainability through the material approaches and the material role in the integration of discourse and practice in design is defined. The paradoxes originated from the extreme architectural submitting are respectively discussed due to the technology refers under the title of ‘Design for Material’ and at the other side due to the so-called natural refers under the title of ‘Material for Design’. The sustainability is defined as ‘the architectural adaptation to pulsing life in the existing environment’ and it is advocated that the process of adaptation due to the architectural components as “place, human and time” requires an approach referring as ‘Material Design’. What is meant in this approach inspires the architecture where the material is also the design itself.

In this respect, it is proposed that although the living conditions alter in time, concerning the material priorities in the detailing design can make the architecture to manage a stable balance and a harmonic integration between the intention of design and the practice of execution. The systematic procedure which is put forward in conclusion is based on the author’s latest studies and the research project with the title of “The Research on Material Priorities in Sustainable Architectural Detailing Localized on The Region”. The systematic procedure is being postulating in the paper under the title of “Material Priorities in “Architectural Sustainability”” has been developed in the extent of research project.

THEORY ARTICLES
6.Turkish restaurants in London: An ethnographic study on representation of cultural identity through design
Þebnem Timur Öðüt
Pages 62 - 81
The aim of this study is to explore the ways in which the Turkish culinary culture is represented and reproduced in London. The emphasis is on the production and serving of food by various restaurants owned by Turkish immigrants, and its respective consumption by those outside the Turkish community.

The research is conducted as an ethnographic study and the method of gathering data involved making interviews with the owners, taking pictures of the restaurants to record the material culture of the places visually and conducting questionnaires to the consumers. While issues related to representation, culture and identity made explicit through visual and material forms were elaborated, the meanings attached or the ways that the different types of restaurants function in daily life were the subject of the study.

Restaurants are classified under three main categories, as indicated in the answers of the questionnaires, that are “traditional”, “modern” and “ordinary” Turkish Restaurants. These categories reflect ideas of “designed ethniticies”, “modernized traditions” and the concept of the “ordinary/ typical”. The ways in which these concepts are represented through visuality and design on the forms of material culture were the subject of discussion.

7.How can architects learn from their own experiences?
Pelin Dursun, Ahsen Özsoy
Pages 82 - 95
Environmental feedback is needed in current architectural practices in order to achieve sustainable and well-qualified buildings that seriously fulfil the needs of their inhabitants. Post- occupancy evaluations can be seen as useful tools for obtaining feedback on how buildings perform and how they are experienced by their inhabitants after they have been occupied. These studies evaluate designed spaces in a scientific way and can be accepted as important resources supplying valuable information to architects for their future design proposals. In this way, they also constitute an important link between architectural research and practice. The aim of this paper is to focus on the post-occupancy evaluations of two student centres which have been designed in the scope of renovations at Istanbul Technical University. In the last fifteen years ITU has worked hard to improve and develop physical and social structures on its campuses, and new projects have been designed. Some faculty spaces that have completed their functional life span have been renovated and new spaces have been created to serve the changing needs of their users. In this study, first the concept of “re-functioning of existing buildings” is introduced and then two projects designed during these renovation attempts are tested comparatively by their architects. Occupants’ needs, perceptions and expectations are taken into account and in-depth interviewing with the administration, teaching staff and the students, behavioural observation and photographic documentation have been employed in the post-occupancy analysis. Technical (acoustic, lighting, ventilation, heat), spatial (function of space, arrangement of space, order of space/spatial relations, size of space), behavioural (personal expressions, social interaction, comfort and aesthetic) and management issues (service quality, control of space) are tested in the POEs. By measuring both successes and failures inherent in the buildings’ performance, feedback for further developments in other ITU academic buildings is provided.



 
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