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ITU J Faculty Arch: 18 (1)
Volume: 18  Issue: 1 - March 2021
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3.Understanding design creativity through pretense ability
Derya Gürcan, Deniz Leblebici Başar
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2021.32815  Pages 1 - 16
In cognitive psychology literature design activity is commonly described as a creative problem-solving process. This process is a transformative way of thinking, involving re-imagining the problem as set of possible states and creating alternative solutions to achieve the requirements of the problem space. Creative thinking is the main skill that facilitates the design process. Pretend play, in the context of developmental theories, is limited to early childhood and seen as the foundation of adult creativity. It is associated with the notion of affordances which is related to the “seeing as if ” ability. This study aims to identify similar cognitive processes between designers’ creative problem-solving and pretense ability and uses a designing activity to present how pretense, seeing as if, may exist in adulthood. To identify the features and similarities of childhood pretense and design process, first a comparative scheme was conceptualized and illustrated. Second, based on our “affordance-based pretense framework of design creativity,” an experiment was designed to examine the relation of pretense (acting as if) ability to creativity measures. 52 participants completed a series of experimental tasks including a creative mental synthesis task and an alternate use test (AUT). Both Kruskal-Wallis H and Mann-Whitney U Tests showed that participants performing affordance-based pretense framework of design creativity tasks received higher creativity scores which suggests that exhibited higher degrees of creativity in terms of being able to see affordances in their object forms.

4.Research for evaluating perception of concrete material by using visual research methods in learning environments
Ervin Garip, Beren Seymen
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2021.34545  Pages 17 - 28
While perceptual-cognitive and social-emotional processes develop from birth to adulthood, the school environment has a vital importance in children’s psychology and relationships with their environment. Considering the fact that most of the learning processes are spent in the school environments in the process of child development, the importance of research on these environments becomes evident. The field study which is presented within the article aims to reveal the attitudes and preferences of the students between the ages of 6-7 whose cognitive processes are in the development stage and to evaluate their perceptual performance of concrete material in learning environments. In this study, two classroom environments with differentiated interior materials modeled with VR technology were evaluated. The first classroom is designed in accordance with the “Minimum Design Standards Guide for Educational Buildings in Turkey”, while the other classroom is designed as an alternative where concrete material is dominant as an interior design element. In the analyzed definitions, it was seen that the students’ responses focused on the situational characteristics of the environment and the materials, illumination and cognitive factors remained in the background. This situation is considered as the pre-operational period of children in this age group concentrate on the identifiable objects they see rather than their own emotions and personal interpretations. In addition, the study showed that the physical environment was effective in the perception of the objects that it surrounds, and that the objects with the same properties can be perceived differently within different physical environments.

5.The relationship between living environment and daily life routines of older adults
Rümeysa Bayar, Handan Türkoğlu
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2021.43410  Pages 29 - 43
The population has been ageing dramatically since 1950s. Therefore addressing age-friendliness has become an important approach in every country. Since a significant proportion of the global population lives in urban areas, it is necessary to highlight the importance of designing neighbourhoods to meet the needs of older adults. This study reveals the relationship between the urban environment and the daily routines of elderly people, differentiated in terms of income level. The study addresses not only the fundamental aspects of neighbourhood design in relation to ageing in place but also how income level affects the ability to be an active citizen in the community. This research used in-depth interviews to compare the experiences of older adults (aged over 70) living in Fatih and Nisantası, two neighbourhoods of Istanbul, Turkey, which are divergent in terms of both income level and urban design features. The findings reveal that living in an neighbourhood that does not support basic needs, such as green open space, housing, social activities, may lead older adults to isolate themselves from community. On the other hand, being able to access urban facilities easily and having a higher income level or financially independency increases older people’s engagement in paid leisure activities, engagement to the city and level of sociability. This paper delivers that the ability to be active in later life is considerably influenced by both living environment and income. Also, enhancing the physical infrastructure of poorer neighbourhoods may have a proportionally greater impact on older people’s wellbeing.

6.Hierarchical multiple regression modelling on predictors of neighbourhood satisfaction in violence-induced segregated urban environments
Rasheed Osuolale Oladosu, Ahmad Nazri Muhamad Ludin, Audu Gani Bogoro
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2021.71224  Pages 45 - 62
Violence-induced segregated urban environments (VISUE) are quite unique urban centres for their characteristic of neighbourhood sharing among residents before the resultant parting triggered by violence. Yet, not much is known about the neighbourhood satisfaction of inhabitants in this type of urban setting. Such knowledge can provide hints on the factors to be prioritized in planning for improvement of neighbourhood satisfaction of residents in these cities. This paper thus examines the key predictors of neighbourhood satisfaction in a VISUE. Household heads (n = 289), cutting across the three identifiable types of neighbourhoods in Jos, Nigeria, expressed their level of satisfaction on a 71-item self-administered structured survey instrument. The principal component analysis with varimax rotation option explored 10 factors to represent the examined attributes of the neighbourhood environment. The third (final) in the sequence of hierarchical regression models estimated, indicates that none of the socio-economic and demographic attributes and dwelling attributes is significant in predicting neighbourhood satisfaction in VISUE. Three factors: neighbourhood safety and stability, social relationships, and neighbourhood facilities and services, emerge as the key predictors of neighbourhood satisfaction. On the basis of these findings, these three attributes are required to be given precedence in any policy action aiming to improve residents’ satisfaction with their neighbourhoods in VISUE.

7.Housing and urban continuity: The 1930s urbanistic experiments in Oran
Sofiane Taibi, Mohamed Madani
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2021.39206  Pages 63 - 77
By drawing attention to the beginnings of Urbanism in France, this work aspires of replying the problems experienced by today’s Algerian cities, which fail to produce a coherent and harmonious urban tissue, and whose urbanism instruments replicate models copied on the 1950s Grands-Ensembles. The 1930s in France correspond to a period of theoretical and regulatory upheavals in the making of towns, where a new generation of city thinkers, the urban planners, develop for the first time Urban Plans for French agglomerations. Considered revolutionary, their concepts will be better received on the southern shores of the Mediterranean, especially in Oran, where a new world is under construction. This article’s objective is to verify the following hypothesis: the 1930s Oran’s urban tissue was built in a context favorable to experimentation, in a logic aiming the city’s homogenization and its urban continuity, through the design and construction of autonomous housing agglomerations. Having exposed the Oran’s first enlargement urban qualities, I’ll reduce the field of study to the Choupot district, located between the city-center and the ZHUN Yaghmoracen. These three urban strata will be then compared through their forms, their history and their mutual articulations, applying many tools such as maps and aerial photographs analysis, revealing for the urban tissues designed in the 30s, a high urban density and a typological diversity of housing and urban forms, which integrate with the city-center. Conversely, the Yaghmoracen district, whose scale and functioning are evocative of the Grands-Ensembles, generates social and spatial segregation of the urban tissue.

8.Urban sprawl: An empirical analysis for Konya Province- Turkey
Fadim Yavuz
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2020.04834  Pages 79 - 97
This study aims to determine the drivers of urban sprawl, additionally environmental impacts and socio-economic impacts of urban sprawl for Konya province in terms of three central counties. A comprehensive questionnaire, consistent with Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique, was designed to get the knowledge, experiences, values, interests and suggestions of experts as the key stakeholders of urban development regarding the urban sprawl problematic occur in the city. A total of 73 local authority experts participated into the survey. The findings show that urban sprawl was accepted as a threat for Konya by the experts. Macro-economic factors such as economic growth was envisaged as the primary driver of urban sprawl. The absence of upper limit for controlling urban sprawl has been highlighted. Thus, “Development of long-term integrated plans promoting sustainable development and the limitation of urban sprawl” was proposed as the most useful precaution for combating urban sprawl that could be taken by stakeholders. On the other hand, “conserving agricultural lands” was admitted as the most significant precaution at the scale of local authorities and Ministry of Environment and Urbanization for combating urban sprawl. Experts’ overall evaluations regarding the level of urban sprawl explicitly show that Karatay was the most sprawled county conversely Selçuklu. The applied methodology also separately enables the weights of urban sprawl effect factors for each county. Results revealing the drivers, effects and the dimensions of urban sprawl in Konya are useful for local municipalities to route urban expansion in a sustainable manner.

9.Issues in the planning and design of university campuses in Turkey
Berna Yaylalı Yıldız, Ela Cil
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2020.03789  Pages 99 - 114
Universities have crucial importance in producing and transmitting knowledge, and formulating an effective and critical public sphere that meets the public with the university population. Their spatial characteristics of universities also refer to an important position within the urban fabric: with dense students’ and academicians’ population, they occupy a considerable amount of spaces in cities. Their spatial formations change over time as new buildings are added and student numbers increased. In that respect, this article seeks to explore how the spatial configurations of university campuses have evolved over time in Turkey. In order to explore the changes in spatial layout of university campuses, especially the organization of public spaces and their relations with the campus buildings, we have narrowed our focus through a chronological reading. Two methods of collecting data are used: First, we reviewed design articles about university campuses in architectural periodicals and online architecture databases. Second, the Five Year Development Plans of Turkish State Planning Organization (DPT 5 Yıllık Planları), have been examined to follow the governmental considerations. In addition, we made interviews with some of the architects who took part in the campus planning process of the cases that are selected for this article. In conclusion, analysis of the spatial configuration of campuses in Turkey reveals some unexpected insights about particular design approaches of universities. The analysis of specific campuses in chronological order shows that it is possible to trace specific campus design tendencies that are peculiar to specific periods.

10.A review of LEED green building certification systems in Europe and Turkey
Şule Filiz Akşit, Eren Baştanoğlu
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2021.72473  Pages 115 - 126
This study reviews LEED green building certification system which is used most widely in Turkey and in the world. A LEED green building certificate can be obtained by meeting different criteria of the review system and therefore each LEED certified building can have different features. This study reviewed all new buildings in Europe and Turkey, which have LEED Gold certificates. Additionally, the LEED green building certification system criteria which were met by more than 150 buildings to obtain the certification were listed and the percentages of the criteria that were met in Europe and in Turkey were determined. Based on these percentages, the criteria that were mostly preferred and those that were not generally avoided by certified buildings were shown. And by comparing these percentages the most important differences between in Turkey and Europe were identified and the reasons for these differences were investigated. Based on the above, it was concluded that the performance of LEED certified buildings in Turkey were poorer than in Europe especially in energy. Although they have the same certification levels, green buildings in Europe are more energy efficient than those in Turkey. In areas such as brownfield redevelopment, light pollution caused by the building, use of certified wood, low VOC (volatile organic compounds) content in floorings and occupant line of sight, buildings in Turkey lag behind the buildings in Europe. In Turkey, regulations and the education level in the industry in these areas are not up to the standards of Europe.

11.Measuring effects of building orientation and vegetation on thermal comfort by ENVI-met (Case study: Maslak area, Istanbul)
Hadi Rezaei Rad, Narges Afzali
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2020.89106  Pages 127 - 137
Urban design and morphology are one of the most important factors affecting outdoor thermal comfort that should be given special attention. Optimal orientation would improve the quality of the building’s thermal comfort as well as its urban area, considering the geography and climate of the area. Conversely, orientation and physical form of the buildings (particularly high-rise buildings) which are incompatible with climate could create a phenomenon called “urban heat island” and disrupt their thermal comfort. Moreover, vegetation as one of the outdoor affecting factors, through creating air movement and shading can help in enhancing the thermal comfort sensation. This paper, through a descriptive-analytical method, firstly explored the theoretical foundations around thermal comfort and the effects of morphology and vegetation on that. Secondly, a high-rise building complex located in Maslak district of Istanbul, a modern and developing region with the Mediterranean climate, was chosen as a case study. Three design alternatives, including the current design and two hypothetical design alternatives for building orientation and vegetation parameters, have been analyzed and the thermal comfort indicators, PMV and PPD have been calculated by Envi-met software. By evaluating and comparing the outputs, it can be concluded that controlling these two parameters (building orientation and vegetation) could have a positive impact on outdoor thermal comfort.

12.LEED certified mixed-use residential buildings in Istanbul: A study on category-based performances
Özge Süzer
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2020.35002  Pages 139 - 152
The building industry has a significant negative effect on climate change and increases other environmental problems at the global scale. LEED, which is one of the most globally used environmental assessment tool, provides the certification of projects according to the evaluation criteria of green buildings under certain categories. On the other hand, an emerging form of architecture, the mixed-use residential high-rise building (MRB), appears in larger numbers especially in the metropolitans of developing countries, such as Istanbul. This building typology displays a positive approach in the context of sustainability. Since they are high-budget projects addressing to high-income groups, it is inherently expected that they have a green approach as a social responsibility. The objective of this study is to analyze LEED certified MRBs in Istanbul by focusing on their prioritization of evaluation categories. LEED’s database revealed a total of twenty-one certified projects under the New Constructions (v.3) scheme. Based on the gained points by these projects, mean rank values of the evaluation categories were calculated, which indicated the priorities given by this sample group. Furthermore, the conducted Kruskal-Wallis test showed there was highly significant difference among the rankings of the categories for these projects. Based on these rank order tests, obtained category priority order of MRBs was compared to the one implied by LEED’s assigned category weights. It was found that Energy and Atmosphere category gained much lower attention than required. Taking the results of the study into account, certain conclusions were drawn for this building type in Istanbul.

13.Exploring the ‘R’s and constructing the big picture of ‘recycling’ in architecture and construction industry
Arulmalar Ramaraj, Jothilakshmy Nagammal
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2021.33254  Pages 153 - 169
In the current scenario, the three ‘R’s ‘reduce, reuse and recycle’ have been extended to fourteen ‘R’s due to the increasing awareness to the impacts generated by the extraction of natural resources, manufacturing of goods as well the disposal of the post consumer goods. Even though the meanings associated with ‘R’s have been increasing, studies have revealed a gap in distinguishing the various degrees of recycling. It is in this context, thematic analysis has been adopted to construct an overall picture of recycling with a thrust on architecture and construction industry. This paper has attempted to explore the ‘R’s, the definitions and classification of recycling by authors in diverse domains and have been consolidated and synthesized. Findings reveal that ‘upcycling’ and ‘upgrading’ are the subsets of recycling. Six degrees of upcycling have been recognized in architecture and the construction sector that revolve around existing building stocks, salvaged building components and building materials with recycled content. In addition, this paper reinstates the need for a ‘pre-process’ phase specific to developing engineered building materials with recycled content especially with secondary resources from domains other than the construction domain.

14.The experimental works conducted on modern heritage and mixed system buildings with the purpose of the conservation and restoration
Seden Acun Özgünler, Mehmet Serkan Yatağan, Nihal Arıoğlu
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2020.86648  Pages 171 - 182
Within the 20th century, the National Architectural Period in Turkey began and the structures which had mixed systems with reinforced concrete (RC) and masonry was seen commonly. This period is also called “Modernization” and the buildings were considered as Modern Architectural Heritage structures. Since most of these buildings are used today, conservation and restoration attempts have become more essential to maintain safety conditions for users with the cultural heritage value of the buildings. Some parameters should be taken into account like the material properties, environmental conditions and human activities that are more effective in the degradation of the structures. However, the conservation and restoration of mixed structures are less investigated in literature because these structures have complex construction techniques and there are not definite rules in the related regulations. So, these kinds of articles that present the studies can be seen invaluable for the structures which has similar problems and solutions. This paper presents in-situ examination and laboratory analyses on the building materials used in Istanbul University Buildings accepted as a cultural heritage masonry infilled RC structure. First of all, in-situ examination was done according to the observations on the exterior and interior walls, Secondly, representative material samples taken from different locations of the buildings both masonry and the RC sections. For the determination of the properties and deteriorations of the materials, the chemical analyses and the physical and mechanical tests were conducted. According to the results, the conservation and restoration applications were recommended for the case study buildings.

15.Şile and its castle: Historical topography and medieval architectural history
Hasan Sercan Sağlam
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2020.26779  Pages 183 - 198
Being a district of Istanbul, Şile is located towards the east of the northern end of the Bosporus. This small city lies next to the Black Sea and it forms the northeastern section of the provincial borders of Istanbul. Şile Castle is popularly known as “Genoese Castle” but some other sources date it to the Late Byzantine period, as a typical watchtower. Following a long period of neglect, it most recently came into prominence with a restoration in 2015, which fully brought it back to the supposed original appearance. Although some assumptions were formerly made in order to describe the origins of Şile Castle, it was seen that its medieval architectural history was not elaborated despite the relevant information that were scattered around some significant primary sources as well as a number of secondary sources. Those works were not put together with the aim of exclusive objectives for Şile and its castle that the modern studies were also unaware of about which extant monument they mention of. Thus, a critical reading was done between relevant primary and secondary sources with a topographical and architectural point of view for Şile. The obtained information were chronologically considered for the topographical depiction, first construction, and usage of the castle for centuries. Major findings displayed that the origins of Şile Castle not only predate formerly supposed times but also differ than a simple watchtower in terms of initial function. Nearby castles also set an example regarding the usage of Şile Castle in later times.

16.Biography of a monument: Historical and morphological survey of the Tower of Justice (Adalet Kulesi)
Nilay Özlü
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2021.87262  Pages 199 - 216
The Tower of Justice (Adalet Kulesi) in the Topkapı Palace is the most striking and visible feature of the imperial complex, defining the renowned silhouette of the Seraglio. This imperial tower, known as Kasr-ı Adl or Kasr-ı Padişahi, was a reflection of the Ottoman visual ideologies and believed to represent the power and glory of the ruler, as an embodiment of his omniscient eye, watching over his subjects to distribute justice. This paper is an attempt to document the architectural and symbolic evolution of this significant monument and scrutinize the changing meanings attributed to it from the 15th century until the 19th century. The date of construction and the patron of the latest Tower of Justice –as we see it today– is not yet documented. Under the light of visual sources and morphological analysis, this research sheds light on the period, in which the latest neo-classical pavilion surmounting the tower was built. Archival documents from the Ottoman State Archives and Topkapı Palace Museum Archives, together with inscriptions, engravings, paintings, and photographs are used in this research to demonstrate the transformation and continuous renovation of the Tower of Justice throughout the Ottoman era.

17.Qubba of the Ksour Mountains, between material and immaterial
Djeradi Mustapha Ameur, Abdelkader Lakjaa
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2021.71602  Pages 217 - 234
The study of architectural shapes of funeral monuments such as the Qubbas requires a particular attention owing to their diversities and symbolic. Describing and examining the shapes of Qubbas, looking for explanations about their differences and their locations are the objectives. Each time, the “How” will help us understand the “Why”. The analysis is typological, anthropological and axiological. We installed a duality, by putting the different criteria of analysis together within an architectural rationale to clear the types and the typologies inherent in these buildings and explain the causes of differentiations between these types. Three typologies of Qubbas were revealed. Their variability lies in the dimensional aspect, the commonly used columns, the technique of connecting the square base to the dome and finally the type of dome. This variability is due essentially to the religious characters they live in. It seems pertinent today to cease to see the architecture of Qubba in terms of spontaneous architecture. These little funerary and sacred monuments, that we see, as the product of spontaneity are in reality the product of a rigorous reflection, more complex than the current reflections, in the sense that what is taken into account is not only the material but more and in particular the immaterial.

18.The influence of traditional Indian architecture in Balkrishna Doshi’s IIM Complex at Bangalore: A comparative analysis using fractal dimensions and lacunarity
Mario Lodeweik Lionar, Özgür Mehmet Ediz
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2021.80388  Pages 235 - 252
Initiated in 1977 and completed in 1992, the Indian Institute of Management (IIM) Complex at Bangalore is generally accepted as one of the most significant turning points in the career of the Indian architect Balkrishna Vithaldas Doshi, as well as one of the key works in the history of contemporary Indian architecture. As declared by the architect himself and interpreted by scholars, the complex’s design, in particular its sophisticated spatial order, was significantly influenced by and closely resembles some key specimens of the traditional Indian architecture: the Royal Complex of Fatehpur Sikri (a specimen of Mughal architecture), the Meenakshi-Sundereshwara Temple Complex, and possibly the Sri Ranganatha-Swamy Temple Complex (both are examples of Hindu architecture). However, these qualitative claims and commentaries have remained mostly unverified in a quantitatively measurable manner. Thus, the present paper uses comparative fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis to mathematically calculate the visual complexity and spatial heterogeneity of these architectural works, focusing on the site plans as the best device to efficiently and comprehensively represent the spatial orders two-dimensionally. While the lacunarity analysis shows a relatively low heterogeneity of the IIM Complex compared to the traditional counterparts, the fractal dimension analysis indicates a relatively high concurrence between the visual complexities of the spatial orders of the IIM Complex and both the Hindu temple compounds. This finding confirms Doshi’s preference for a more unorthodox spatial fabric of Hindu architecture compared to the more straightforward order of Mughal architecture.

19.The dialectic of the instrumental and the aesthetic mind in the philosophy of Theodore Adorno and its representations in contemporary art
Mowafaq Ali Alsaggar, Monther Al- Atoum
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2021.46504  Pages 253 - 267
The current study aims to identify the controversy dimensions between the instrumental and the aesthetic mind in Theodore Adorno’s philosophy and its representations in contemporary composition. The problem of the study is based on Theodore Adorno’s readings of the contemporary and cultural scene nature related to the conflict principle between the two concepts of conflict: the instrumental mind that makes technology, machinery; and the aesthetic mind that makes art and beauty. The importance of the study lies in presenting the ideas and thesis of the Frankfurt Critical School, as Adorno was one of its pioneers. The study includes five artworks achieved by artists from the European and American West, as the researcher’s selection criteria were based on observing the most famous and influencing artists in the contemporary art and on choosing artworks achieved between 1958 and 2004. The study found that most important of which is celebration of the productions of contemporary fine art in all its marginal, which elevates it to the place of artistic and aesthetic work to cut contemporary human ties with everything that is perfect and Semitic, and elevate human mind, spirit, and general human culture. Furthermore, the study found that the most important of which is the emergence of hybrid artistic genres combining different creative styles and turning a large number of artists to the practice technical specialties away from their original areas in search of innovation and fame.

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