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ITU J Faculty Arch: 9 (1)
Volume: 9  Issue: 1 - June 2012
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1.Editorial
Orhan Hacıhasanoğlu
Pages I - III

DOSSIER EDITORIAL
2.International arena of all arhitects and urban planners celebrates the 100th anniversary of the birth of professor, architect, urban planner Kemal Ahme tArû
Nuran Zeren Gülersoy
Pages 1 - 15
Abstract | Full Text PDF

DOSSIER ARTICLES
3.Sevgili hocamız sayın Prof. Kemal Ahmet Arû’ya saygılar ve sevgilerle
Hande Suher
Pages 16 - 22
Çok üzgünüm, İ.T.Ü. Mimarlık Fakültesi Şehircilik Kürsüsü’ nün kurucu üç değerli üyesini kaybettim, yalnız kaldım.

Öğrenci olduğum dönemde İ.T.Ü. Mimarlık Fakültesi Mimarlık Öğretim Programı için Şehircilik Kürsüsü, sadece üç kişiydi: Kürsü Başkanı Prof. G. Oelsner Ankara’da Bakanlıkta Danışmanlık görevini yapıyor ve haftada iki gün gelerek Şehircilik dersi veriyordu. Hocamız Doçent Kemal Ahmet Arû o tarihte henüz Doçentti. Asistanımız, ağabeyimiz Gündüz Özdeş’di.

Profesör Kemal Ahmet Arû derslerini çok açık bir dille ve seçkin bir programla sürdürür, ayrıca kendinin zengin dia koleksiyonundan verdiği örneklerle, yabancı kentleri ve değerlerini sergilerdi. Ders programı ülkemizden de verdiği kırsal ve kentsel örneklerle, özellikle Şehircilik derslerini sevgi ve saygıyla izlerdik.

4.Prof. Kemal Ahmet ARÛ - Biography
Nuran Zeren Gülersoy
Pages 23 - 36
Prof. Kemal Ahmet Arû was born in Üsküdar, Istanbul in 1912. He graduated from Galatasaray High School in 1932 and from the Department of Architecture at the Fine Arts Academy in 1937. In 1940 he began working as a research assistant at the Graduate School of Engineering (ITU). Between 1942-1946 he taught studio classes with Clemens Holzmeister and attended urbanism courses with Ord. Prof. Dr. Gustav Oelsner. In addition to his teaching post at the ITU he gave lectures at Yıldız Technical School and ITU Maçka Technical School. After assuming professorship in 1950, he was elected as the Head of Chair of Urbanism. He was elected as the Dean of ITU, Faculty of Architecture at different periods during 1954-1970. Kemal Ahmet Arû worked as visiting professor in Stuttgart in 1961-1962, in Berlin in 1963 and at Vienna Technical University in 1967. He was the Head of the Institute of Urbanism at ITU between 1967-1982.

THEORY ARTICLES
5.Revaluating ecology in contemporary landscape design
Meltem Erdem
Pages 37 - 55
Ecology, as a field of science, has become one of the integral part of the planning and design disciplines since mid - twenties. Growing awareness of local and global environmental decline gave rise to the appreciation of ecology and its implementation in design and planning works. Different channels have been investigating to understand and discover the interface between ecology and design and to find plausible ways to solve environmental defects. Within interdisciplinary design medium, landscape architecture appears to be the most active agent to engage with environment from different pathways. Today, the modes of this engagement is redefined with respect to the changing nature of contemporary city and new demands which further lead a shift in landscape design theory and praxis. This shift underlies an ecological understanding in which ecology is revaluated by designer’s creative mind sets via investigating, managing and manipulating the ecological knowledge to respond current environmental trend. As a part of this revaluating process, this paper aims to discuss the emergence of “representation” of ecology in landscape design and proposes four broad representation modes; approach, technique, analogy and metaphor by reviewing six high profile landscape design cases. With this respect, review of current discourses on design and ecology and examination of case studies are utilized to frame the research method of the study.

6.An assessment on traditional timber structures in Süleymaniye and Zeyrek districts of Historical Peninsula
Nazire Papatya Seçkin
Pages 56 - 69
This study was made on the wooden structural and decorative elements of the 19th century traditional timber buildings in Süleymaniye and Zeyrek Districts, to analyze the structural deteriorations and to identify the woods used.

Istanbul was the capital city of the Ottoman Empire. As in most areas of Istanbul, Süleymaniye and Zeyrek have a lot of beautiful timber structures bearing the memories of past life styles and examples of historical construction techniques. These structures, which are in the World Heritage List, are at risk of disappearing because of lack of care. Most of them are still waiting for restoration.

The spectrum of woods used in these structures is quite large as shown by taxa recognized: Pinus slyvestris, Abies bornmuelleriana, Picea orientalis, Quercus petraea, Tilia tomentosa and Castanea sativa. All species used are being grown naturally in the forests of West Black Sea Region in Turkey.

The works were realized through direct observations, photographing and laboratory analysis methods. The photographs present observations and examples showing the mechanical condition of these timber structures, which have been damaged over time. The main reasons for deterioration of these structures were natural reasons such as earthquake, water and humidity, atmospheric conditions, and man-made reasons including abandonment, fire, incorrect attempts at restoration, economic insufficiency, air pollution, lack of laws to protect these structures and municipal indifference.

For laboratory analysis, a total of 380 wood samples have been taken from 30 structures, which twenty of them were timber and ten of them were masonry buildings. These samples consist of the parts of facings, posts, window profiles, laths, ceilings, floor coverings, floor beams, stairs, handrails, skirting boards, exterior and interior doors. Following the sampling, macroscopic and microscopic diagnoses were conducted to finalize the research.

The main objective for producing this study is based on hope to preserve these structures for future generations. For this purpose, the reasons for deterioration of these structures were analyzed, photographs to illustrate their present conditions were taken and the woods used in these traditional timber structures were identified.

7.(Epistemological) formalism and its influence on architecture: A Concise review
Hakan Anay
Pages 70 - 85
Despite the term’s bad reputation in architecture, formalism, at least in its specific conception, refers to a respectable “body of thought” that has also been influential on architecture. The referred “body of thought” can be coined as “Epistemological” Formalism that is tied to two related but distinct formalist traditions: German Formalism that was flourished about the late 19th century and Russian Formalism persisted between 1915 and 1930. The present study reviews some of the essential ideas of so-called “Epistemological” Formalism in their roots in German Formalism, and Russian Formalism, and searches for and follows the traces of these ideas in architecture, aiming to shed light onto formalism’s influence, and the nature of that influence on architecture.

8.The right to inhabit in the city: Yeni Sahra squatter settlement in Istanbul
Aytanga Dener
Pages 86 - 103
The informal housing issue was included into the agenda of Turkey in the 1950s. The outskirts of major cities are still crowded with informal and low quality houses. Today, Istanbul is under the influence of global flows and the big scaled urban transformation projects are being planned to rearrange the degraded areas. In this context, the squatters are displaced whereas the land profit is transferred to the big capitalists. However, social movements and resistance arise against these projects and the housing issue of poor people is discussed in various forums for the sake of developing their socioeconomic and cultural status in the cities.

This paper aims to discuss the concepts, “the right to the city” and “the right to inhabit” within the context of the neoliberal regimes and the consequential economic, socio-cultural, ideological and spatial transformation occurred both in the world cities and Istanbul. The first part of the paper is shared for the discussions on the issues of neoliberalism, social exclusion and the concepts, “the rights to the city”, “the right to inhabit”. The successive phases of gecekondu phenomenon are examined in order to form the basis for the evaluations of the current status of squatters and their houses in the city. In the second part, the physical and social structure of Yeni Sahra squatter settlement in Anatolian part of Istanbul is discussed in relation to the research mainly on the characteristics of inhabitants and houses. The incremental development of the squatter houses versus urban transformation projects is considered by thinking the integration of the inhabitants into the city life.

9.Dialogue on space: Spacial codes and language of space
Pelin Dursun
Pages 104 - 119
Design is a sophisticated cognitive activity that has space at its core. Design begins through the gaining of an understanding of the living culture, potentials, constraints, and variables of the space. To do this, architects must acquire a perception of the architectural space by decoding the characteristics of its social culture and discovering the messages revealed via its built form. In this way an architect enriches his or her understanding and forms personal knowledge of the space in question. Critical questions arise at this point: How do architects understand and decode space? How do architects perceive and conceptualize space? How do architects express meaning in space? How do they think and talk about space?

The intent of this paper is to reveal the output of discussions on these essential questions with the students in the first lecture of an undergraduate elective course, Architectural Morphology that was given at Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Architecture. The course asked students to describe and talk about their living spaces so as to record their mental processes and clarify the characteristic elements of language they use to talk about space. The last part of this paper contributes to the creation of a scientific, analytical tool, space syntax, to form a language for thinking and talking about space.

10.Analysing environmental satisfaction in gated housing settlements: A case study in İstanbul
S. Banu Garip, Hasan Şener
Pages 120 - 133
In Istanbul, gated communities have been increasing in number all around the city, particularly since the 1980s, and there has been an ongoing demand since then. This paper mainly tries to examine the users’ relationships with the housing environment and focuses on the issues of “satisfaction” and “residents’ evaluation of their physical and social environments” in gated settlements. Housing environments have a mechanism that includes “spatial”, “functional”, and “social” relations. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to understand how residents define their social and physical environments within this mechanism, and to find out some environmental characteristics that affect their satisfaction in order to provide some clues to the environmental quality of the housing environments without walls around and gates with security control. A case study was carried out in four gated settlements in Istanbul, and a questionnaire was given to 200 residents which essentially contained open-ended and multiple-choice questions. Data gathered from the open-ended questions provided a wide range of concepts that define the settings in different scales, while the data gathered from the multiple-choice questions presented the statistical findings with respect to satisfaction. The results show that the residents’ “satisfaction” with their social and physical environment is at a considerably high level. This situation demonstrates the importance and significance of the studies in this field while there are many discussions related to the negative effects of these settlements.

11.Durability of external thermal insulation composite systems in Istanbul Turkey
Ecem Edis, Nil Türkeri
Pages 134 - 148
External Thermal Insulation Composite Systems (ETICS) have entered the Turkish market in late 1990s. However, there is no information regarding their durability. This study presents the field inspection results conducted to assess the durability of extruded polystyrene (XPS) based ETICS, when exposed to degradation agents originating from atmosphere, occupancy, design, and construction in Istanbul, Turkey. Initially, the exposure environment of Istanbul was determined. Subsequently, a survey form was prepared to be filled out by ETICS suppliers and contractors to determine the location of buildings with ETICS in Istanbul and to obtain data regarding ETICS installation. Data describing the state of the building facades with ETICS was gathered through field inspection. Observed defects were classified according to the origin of the degradation agents, i.e. external and internal degradation agents and the presence, type and intensity of the defects. Results of field inspection of the 44 buildings with XPS based ETICS indicated that when exposed to external degradation agents of Istanbul, the state of the facades having an exposure life of 1 to 7 years proved to be virtually without defects. However, when the effects of internal degradation agents, i.e. improper use of occupants, improper design and defective construction are considered, a quite number of defects such as delamination, drill holes were observed at the facades.

12.Daylight analysis and lighting energy management for schools in hot-temperate climates
Rana Kutlu, Alpin Yener, Banu Manav, Mehmet Şener Küçükdoğu
Pages 149 - 164
The aim of the study is to suggest an optimum facade design and an energy efficient lighting system for elementary schools’ classroom modules for different climate types. A classroom module from the typical projects which are implemented by the Ministry of Public Works and Settlement of Turkey was analyzed, by the aid of the computer based daylight analysis program Radiance 2.0 Beta, and daylight performance was evaluated for hot and temperate climate types. The results are evaluated in terms of monthly and annual energy consumption and a proposal is made to increase visual performance and to reduce energy conservation. The proposal covers envelope design, solar control and artificial lighting system. The principles of facade design, shading device and artificial lighting system are discussed from the view point of energy conscious design for hot and temperate climate types. The study findings suggest an optimum orientation-dependant facade design for the two climate types.

13.High performance window selection model - HiPerWin
İkbal Çetiner, Aslıhan Tavil, Hakan Yaman, Kevser Coşkun
Pages 165 - 180
Windows are the most complex elements in residential design, and owners are often confused about how to decide the most efficient window for their residence. A model, namely “A High Performance Window Selection Model – HiPerWin”, was developed as a research project for selecting energy and cost efficient residential windows in different climatic regions of Turkey. The challenge was to attain a basic source which supports the user to provide the energy and cost data required for selecting the appropriate window. In this context, the alternatives of the insulated glazing units (IGU) with different properties were generated, and the performance values of the IGU’s were calculated. A comprehensive parametric study was conducted for providing the energy use of each case. The present value of both the operational energy consumption and capital costs of window systems was calculated for whole life cost evaluation. A dynamic tool, a relational database management system (RDBMS), was also developed to manage all energy and cost results associated with the building model. By means of the RDBMS the users are able to define their cases and select the most energy and cost efficient window system by using the energy and cost data stored in the database.



 
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