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ITU J Faculty Arch: 8 (2)
Volume: 8  Issue: 2 - December 2011
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EDITORIAL
1.Editorial
Orhan Hacıhasanoğlu
Pages I - II

DOSSIER EDITORIAL
2.Quantitative models in planning
Handan Türkoğlu, Mehmet Ali Yüzer
Pages 1 - 3
Abstract | Full Text PDF

DOSSIER ARTICLES
3.Changing importance of quantitative methods in regional development and planning
Ayda Eraydın
Pages 4 - 16
In the recent past the quantitative methods, which had been favorable in planning practice since the 1950s and 1960s, lost their popularity. This paper claims that the planning discourse and the underlying theories were imperative in this trend. The paper aims to present briefly the changing planning discourses since the 1950s, and the shift in the focus of regional planning connected to how growth has been perceived and theorized indicating that these changes were the main factors that downgraded the use of quantitative techniques. The last section, however, discusses that the increasing problems and vulnerability of regions and urban areas necessitate a paradigm shift, which should bring back the need for quantitative analysis on the agenda.

4.Quantitative data evaluation model in the process of planning: Case of Istanbul metropolitan area
Mehmet Ali Yüzer
Pages 17 - 34
In the matter of sustainability, several methods have been used in setting natural, social, economic, cultural and structural growth potentials and tendencies. Quantitative evaluation and estimation methods, which were developed after 1960’s especially for evaluating the synthesis phase of planning process or presenting possible tendencies with different acceptances, have accelerated after 1980’s with the development in computer technology. This has facilitated evaluation of data in several ways and simulation in a short time. In the article, a method will be explained to develop future scenario of metropolitan cities by using natural, socio- economic and physical data. With the principle of conservation of natural structure of Istanbul, increasing quality of life and evaluation of space in a competitive way, it is planned to obtain different results by using different data.

Even if Istanbul is an important service center for both Turkey and other countries of the region, it holds an important manufacturing function. While the competing force of the city is supported by economic structure, the force of urban development over natural resources undermines this competing force. Factors affecting the competing force of Istanbul are determined by literature studies, and are evaluated by using spatial data. Spatial data are used by defining factors affecting sustainability Sieve analysis is used as an evaluation method in an ArcGIS environment. By evaluating the indicators of competing force in Istanbul, the future position of the competing force of the city is presented spatially. Aforementioned steps are tested in the method by life quality point of view and the results are compared.

Istanbul, the biggest city of Turkey, has been growing both economically, demographically and spatially. It threatens both natural areas around the city and the future of the city by the pressure over water reservoir areas. In defining Istanbul’s spatial development tendencies and forming future scenarios, sustainability of the natural areas should be taken into consideration.

5.An analysis of spatial development tendency of Istanbul
Fatih Terzi, Fulin Bölen
Pages 35 - 48
Urban spatial structure is increasingly characterized by decentralization, dispersion, concentration, and multiple centers. In Istanbul, dual development processes have been observed in the course of time. The first process is continuous urban expansion with low density development which was triggered mainly by squatter settlements at the periphery and recently occurring high density mass housing development due to low land values. The second process is the intensification and/or renewal process within built-up areas in the central parts of Istanbul.

In this paper, density and land value gradient analysis has been used to analyze urban structural change in terms of core-peripheral relationship in Istanbul. A GIS database is set up to obtain density, land value, distance measures, visualize spatial patterns, and calculate density and land value gradient. In general, standard urban models predict a pattern of negative exponential density gradients within cities, where there is a gradual decline in population density and land value from the center of the city to its outskirts. In the Istanbul case, negative exponential density and land value gradients is observed even though Istanbul has the changing urban structure from monocentric to polycentric. Furthermore, the fact that the change in land value at peripheries has been higher than that of the central zones and the increase in density changes at peripheries shows that the macro-form of Istanbul has demonstrated both urban expansion and urban intensification characteristics from past to present.

6.The spatial distribution of economic base multipliers: A GIS and spatial statistics-based cluster analysis
K. Mert Çubukçu
Pages 49 - 62
Empirical studies on the economic base multiplier concept have been highly limited in their spatial scope. The aim of this research is to provide new insights into the study of base multipliers by examining their spatial distribution over space. Base multipliers pertaining to the 923 districts in Turkey, varying between 1,268 and 807,934 in population, are estimated for the year 2000 using aggregate level data. The minimum requirements method is applied following the altering samples approach. The base multiplier estimates are normally distributed and vary between 1.229 and 4.883, with a mean of 2.269. In order to assess whether the districts with similar base multipliers form clusters, two widely used tools of spatial autocorrelation is applied: (1) Moran’s I index and (2) Getis and Ord analysis. The results show that the base multipliers form clusters of high and low values. They are neither randomly nor uniformly distributed over space, and the results are statistically significant at the 0.05 level. The results confirm that high base multipliers cluster in and around higher order central places

7.Cellular automata-Markov chain and landscape metrics for landscape planning
Hayriye Eşbah, Mehmet Akif Erdoğan, Anil Akın Tanrıöver
Pages 63 - 79
Landscape monitoring and modeling enable effective and comprehensive understanding of land use change. This, in turn, helps planners in gaining insight about the complex relationships involving in the planning process. This study aims to model land use/cover in the western Aydin Province for 2025 by using Cellular automata-Markov Chain and landscape metrics. Spot 2X (1994) and Aster (2005) images were utilized along with digital elevation model and population information. Modeling parameters included Elevation, Slope, Aspect, Population, and a set of Distance maps. Fuzzy logic and multi criteria approaches were pursued for model development, and then a core set of landscape metrics were applied. The results show that while urbanization would be changing landscape characteristics significantly in the study area, coniferous forest and salt marshes will increase due to management efforts in the legally protected parks; and that Maqui and Garique cover would continuously decrease by 2025 as a result of anthropogenic pressures. Recommendations include protecting large habitat patches and establishing an ecological network; developing buffer zone typologies and strategies for ecologically important areas; preserving stepping stone habitats; improving river, hedgerow, and road and canal corridors; and promoting soft landscape matrix as a landscape management strategy in rapidly urbanizing areas.

8.Environmental risk assessment of the Seyhan watershed using spatial modelling
Süha Berberoğlu, Cenk Dönmez, Mehmet Akif Erdoğan
Pages 80 - 90
The major objective of this research wasto model the current spatial distribution of: i) Net Primary Productivity (NPP); ii) Erosion; and iii) Forest fire risk to assess and understand the environmental risk pattern. These outputs were incorporated and evaluated within a GIS environment using multi-criteria analysis (MCA) to derive environmental risk pattern of Seyhan Watershed.

One of the spatial models used in this study is Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA), developed by NASA and Stanford University. This model is a biogeochemical approach which designed to model annual NPP amounts to predict carbon budgets at regional scale using satellite images and climate data including, air temperature, precipitation and solar radiation. Also, aFire Risk Model is used to derive regional forest fire risk in GIS environment. This model utilises topography-related information and climate data in MCA process. And last, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) is used to predict soil loss potential on a statistical basis.

The current spatial distribution of climate data were generated from 48 climate stations in and around the study area using co-kriging. Environmental risk map was produced using the outputs of NPP, erosion and forest fire risk modelling with MCA and land cover data.

9.Modelling land use changes in Karaburun by using CLUE-s
Nurdan Erddoğan, Engin Nurlu, Ümit Erdem
Pages 91 - 102
Land cover of earth has been changing dramatically by human activities. These changes have direct impacts on component of environment like soil, water and atmosphere and are thus directly related to many environmental issues of global importance. For that reason, land use changes are key elements in studying global environmental changes. The detection of the changes, the understanding of the underlying processes as well as modeling of scenarios for future development are precondition for the set up of sustainable land-use planning schemes and integrated environmental management.

In this research, land uses in Karaburun Peninsula were modelled based on CLUE-s modelling approach. The model was calibrated using historical data describing the land use patterns between 1984 and 2010. Land use maps for these dates were derived from LANDSAT TM images. The validation process based on multiple resolution technique shows the ability of the CLUE-s model to predict the land-use changes at the research area. Scenario for future development was defined based on Environmental Plan for Manisa-Kutahya-Izmir Planning Region. Demand of land use classes for 2025 was determined according to this plan. Land use changes were modelled between 2010 and-2025.

THEORY ARTICLES
10.Product semantics meets the user: A Design workshop with a fresh look to an old paradigm
Hümanur Bağlı
Pages 103 - 121
The article is about how Product Semantics, as an old paradigm of design, can be reevaluated to have a broader look to include a user-centered approach. In this attempt, a workshop held in ITU, Department of Industrial Design was taken to exemplify the potentials of this new approach.

The main focus of this paper is to test the possible extensions of the seven semantic categorization of Burnette (1995) and see how “useful” it is in order first to analyze the users’ connection with their material world; and second, ideate the data gained from this analysis into more concrete design concepts. This was tested in an educational exercise as a controlled practice.

This paper presents a small workshop performed together with graduate students of Industrial Design in Istanbul Technical University to see how those possible extensions of methods or approaches can reach the desires, wants, and perspectives of user by using only the main categories that Burnette presented years ago. This exercise tries to transfer an old paradigm of design, Product Semantics, into a new and fresh one with a new look to the users, how they see their material world and how a designer can extract new clues about design with an approach similar to design ethnography.

11.Design integration and organisational routines
Serkan Güneş
Pages 122 - 136
For most companies, the main problem concerning new product development is integrating industrial design process in NPD. Although its definition and scope is not noticed fully, increasing importance of design for company is a fact and there are respectable amount of different practices to create a structure for design in the company to support and strengthen the corporate vision and long-term competitive advantage.

Design integration within a firm requires changes in decision rules or routines. As the routine changing processes are themselves routine guided, first, awareness at top management should be constituted for the highest level strategic decision. Selection between developing a new routine itself and adopting an existing one depends on industry type, company size, ownership for design and type of competitive competence, however much of learning in design is imitation of existing ones and vicarious by engaging with consultancies.

On this account, this paper is an attempt to bring insights into this debate first by positioning industrial design in innovation strategy and explicating topic by using different and potential design integration types within various firms. The study interested in explaining different design integration forms, and specifically in understanding what, if any, connections there are between different level of design integration in various firms and organizational routines in innovation management literature.

12.Analysis of the usage process after ISO 9000 certification in the Turkish construction sector
Elçin Taş, Sezgi Yıldırım
Pages 137 - 155
The ISO 9000 Quality Management System which is effective at establishing and evaluating the quality system of firms has been adopted in the construction sector later than in other sectors, however, it has spread quite fast among the construction firms. As an important topic, studies on ISO 9000 arise daily. It has been noticed that, both the national and international studies are generally based on the establishment of the ISO 9000 Quality Management System and the certification process, but the process after certification has been disregarded. However, examination of the process after certification is as crucially important as the process till receiving the certificate. Moreover, an evaluation of the benefit-cost relationship of the ISO 9000 Quality Management System is quite important for both raising the awareness of firms, which are planning to be certificated, and continuation of already certificated firms. This article analyses usage and application of the ISO 9000 in the Turkish construction sector after certification by using a field study. The impacts of the ISO 9000 Quality Management System on firms and benefit-cost ratio of the ISO 9000 certification are evaluated and examined; the positive and negative aspects of the ISO 9000 certification are put forth.

13.Island living as a gated community: Place attachment in an isolated environment
Erincik Edgü, Fitnat Cimşit
Pages 156 - 177
This research studies the spatial preferences and place attachment levels of the newcomers compared to the existing users by means of visual perception and adaptation in the context of Istanbul’s Prince Islands. The visual and physical distance of the islands to mainland, give a chance to explore the certain images shared by inhabitants. The hypothesis assumes that the islands are gated communities where entrance is limited physically and semantically. Place attachment is analysed due to the outcomes of relations between the environmental preference, physical structure, social adaptation and social interaction in various levels of perception, cognition and residency periods. Proximity, accessibility, topography, size and limits are parameters considered for the analyses of physical structure. Existing, or newcomer, the individuals symbolically interact more with the island than the city. With the help of physical and visual isolation, islands strongly encourage place attachment in forms of social bonds and present welcoming environments for the newcomers. The results of the research show that living in the context of smaller, limited settlement units, facilitates the social adaptation of the occupants that, improves social relations and consequently environmental satisfaction.

14.“Public space” versus “individual space”: Cities made of buildings or buildings made by cities
Yüksel Demir
Pages 178 - 189
The roots of today’s problematic city structure of Istanbul go back to the city design interventions triggered by big fires in 19th century. These interventions were made under the influence of European city design movements and by European experts The interventions realized under poor conditions became incomplete copies of the inspired examples such as Paris and couldn’t be well matched with socio-cultural structure. As a result Istanbul has grown and developed in an unhealthy way missing a proper scientific planning process. This created several severe results: traffic, parking problem, lack of space for pedestrians and children, sun shading and view. Especially the needs and demands of the individual and the individual space; in other words the demands and needs of people, were sacrificed to create an impressive public space image by the 19th century city designers in Europe. In contrary, the problems of individual spaces in Istanbul were created by inappropriate conditions. In both cases there are conflicts that offended the human beings most ordinary right: a minimal, healthy individual space to live in peace and happiness. In order to prevent these problems the city should be considered with all of its dimensions, as a whole, because cities have multi-dimensional structures (Demir, 2000). Planning process should involve design tools and methods at all scales and fields (urban, landscape architectural, product) as well as social, political, economical ones to balance the public profit with individual profit.

BOOK REVIEW
15.Basics landscape architecture: Urban design
Pelin Öztürk
Pages 190 - 191
Basics landscape architecture: Urban design
Ed Wall, Tim Waterman
AVA Publishing SA, Lausannne, Switzerland, 2009.
ISBN 978-2-940411-12-2 Paperback

Urban design is generally seen as a discipline in between architecture and planning that deals with the design of 3-dimensional public spaces. However, this book argues the “Urban Design” as a way of landscape architecture, explains the parallels between these notions, and discusses the techniques and context that are important for both disciplines. The book gains meaning as it discusses the practice and the theory concurrently.

The book, which would be seen as a handbook for students, intends to execute the relationship and parallels between Urban Design and Landscape architecture through 6 chapters by analyzing the techniques and practices in the disciplines.



 
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