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ITU J Faculty Arch: 8 (1)
Volume: 8  Issue: 1 - June 2011
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EDITORIAL
1.Editorial
Orhan Hacıhasanoğlu
Page III

DOSSIER EDITORIAL
2.Urban transformation: Controversies, contrasts and challenges
Nuran Zeren Gülersoy, Zeynep Günay, Turgay Kerem Koramaz, Buket Önem
Pages 1 - 9
Abstract | Full Text PDF

DOSSIER ARTICLES
3.Conceptual challenges on urban transformation
Nuran Zeren Gülersoy, Ebru Gürler
Pages 10 - 24
This study discusses the complexity of the concept of urban transformation and urban change in planning history by focusing on the urbanization processes. The purpose of this study is to resolve the changes in theory and practice of urban transformation, and to reconsider diversified approaches in urban transformation by explaining it in an inter-disciplinary manner. Therefore; the objective of this study is threefold: (1) to explain conceptual evolution of urban transformation in planning history with reference to paradigm shifts, (2) to categorize theoretical developments and changes of urban transformation in planning theory, (3) to mark the spatial manifestation of urban transformation in planning practice. In view of that, a typology on the periods related with urban transformation is characterized by evaluating paradigm shifts in planning history by means of historical analysis. In conclusion, similarities and differences regarding theories and practices of urban transformation are debated as well as the possibilities and opportunities in advanced studies on urban transformation are proposed.

4.Exhibitions and town planning culture: An Australian perspective
Robert Freestone, Marco Amati
Pages 25 - 39
This paper provides a preliminary foray into the historical role of planning exhibitions in the development of modern town planning culture drawing on the Australian experience. While the catalytic role of major expositions on urban society has been acknowledged in the literature, the staging, evolution and meanings attached to purpose-built planning exhibitions at a global scale have made only modest incursions into planning history. Such events provide a useful aesthetic and historical lens through which to understand how the objectives of planning have evolved through communication to the wider community. Our objective is to frame the role of exhibitions in different time periods through the first half of the twentieth century with reference to the Australian planning. Exhibitions in the 1910s were often attached to conferences and helped codify the aims, icons and progress of the planning movement as an eclectic, largely spatial discipline. The 1940s were arguably the golden era for planning exhibitions used to communicate and crystallize a mature and universal canon of modernist planning ideals and values as part of the post-war reconstruction effort. We conclude with reflections on a research agenda for the historiographical role of the planning exhibition.

5.Urban renewal, masterplanning and design information management: A New Zealand waterfront case study
John G. Hunt
Pages 40 - 52
In the context of a very limited body of literature on urban masterplanning processes, this paper presents a case study of the recently completed masterplanning process for the urban waterfront of the city of Auckland, New Zealand. The focus of the paper is on the management of design information during this process. The paper outlines the workshop-based collaborative decision-making of the masterplanning team, and in particular the management of the shift from the problem-focused design brief development phase of the initial workshops to the creative design work undertaken in later workshops. The importance of developing overarching design themes to guide the decision-making process, and the potential for these thematic statements to link the design brief priorities with subsequent design-generative work, and to knit together design work at different scales within the masterplan, is identified. The paper concludes by assessing the case study process in relation to the characteristics of successful methodologies for urban renewal projects suggested by Mayer et al (2005).

6.Knowledge-based urban development processes of an emerging knowledge city: Brisbane, Australia
Tan Yiğitcanlar
Pages 53 - 67
In the global knowledge economy, to attract and retain knowledge-intensive industries and workers, cities produce various development strategies. Such strategising is an important development mechanism for cities to complete their transformation into knowledge cities. This paper discusses the critical connections between knowledge city foundations and integrated knowledge-based urban development strategies, and scrutinises Brisbane‟s strategies in attracting and retaining investment and talent. The paper introduces a knowledge-based urban development assessment framework and uses this framework to provide a clearer understanding of Brisbane‟s knowledge-based development processes and knowledge city transformation experience. The assessment framework particularly focuses on examining Brisbane‟s four development processes, institutional, economic, socio-cultural and urban development, in detail. The findings reveal that although Brisbane is still in early stages of its transformation into a fully-fledged knowledge city, global orientation and achievements of Brisbane in strategising knowledge-based urban development are noteworthy.

7.Parallel Routes: Proposals for large scale projects in the centres of Athens and Istanbul at the beginning of the twentieth century
Emmanuel V. Marmaras, Savvas E. Tsilenis
Pages 68 - 84
In the beginning of the twentieth century the governments of the two neighbors‟ countries, the Ottoman Empire and the Kingdom of Greece, proceeded in planning Large Scale Modernization projects in the centres of their capital cities. These projects never materialized due to the dramatic change of the general historical and political circumstances that followed the First World War. In Athens under the framework of two commissioned Urban Plans to the German town planner Hoffmann (1910), as well as to the British one Mawson (1914), large scale interventions were proposed aiming at the „westernization‟ of the Greek capital. In juxtaposition, in Istanbul Sultan Abdul Hamit II asks for plans to reform and beautify the capital the first decade of the twentieth century from the following architects and engineers: Ferdinand Arnondin, “the Strom, Lindman & Hilliker company”, and the architect of Paris Town Hall, J. A. Bouvard. The objective was the construction of bridges, a subway, and the reformation of central city squares. Aim of this paper is to reveal the similarities and differences between these two parallel government actions.

8.The building of Istanbul docks 1870-1910. New entrepreneurial and cartographic data
Vilma Hastaoglou-Martinidis
Pages 85 - 99
The building of modern docks in the Golden Horn was a major modernisation project undertaken in Istanbul at the end of the 19th century. The account of this venture has already been the object of extensive studies, namely the book by W. Müller-Wiener. The present paper attempts the cartography of harbour works carried out between 1870 and 1910, bringing into light new data, based mostly on unpublished material from various sources in France, Britain and Turkey. It examines the preparation of the enterprise, and its wider relevance within the broader perspective of the technical innovations introduced by foreign firms and their engineers in the Eastern Mediterranean region. It produces new evidence about unidentified projects and entrepreneurial schemes, and emphasises on the urban and architectural modernisation that harbour building entailed for the city.

9.“Les Transformations d’Istanbul”: Henri Prost’s planning of Istanbul (1936-1951)
Cânâ Bilsel
Pages 100 - 116
Henri Prost, who was one of the founders of town planning in France, was invited to prepare the master plan of Istanbul by the Turkish government in 1935. He conducted the planning of the historic capital and the most populous city of Turkey from 1936 to 1951. Although Prost has been renowned particularly with his conservative attitude toward the cultural heritage and the assets of the natural landscape, curiously he adopted a highly interventionist planning approach in Istanbul.

“Les Transformations d’Istanbul” is the title of his speech at the Institut de France in September 1947. This title, which he gave later to the collection of his planning notes, reveals the principal goal of his planning in Istanbul on the basis of three principal issues: transportation, hygiene and aesthetics. The aimed transformation was twofold: it consisted in restructuring the city as a whole mainly by establishing a new transportation infrastructure, and reshaping the urban fabric by intervening on the building and population density of the existing centers. In line with the idea of a “concentration plan,” the plans that he prepared for the historic peninsula were directed to rationalize the street network and to increase the building density. But, while Prost intervened radically on the historic fabric of the city, he also cared for the “total effect” in Istanbul’s skyline. Prost’s plans, which were partly implemented during and after his stay in Istanbul, had long lasting effects on the city’s transformation.

10.Urban regeneration projects in Istanbul and documentary value
Yonca Kösebay Erkan, E. Füsun Alioğlu
Pages 117 - 128
Historic cities directly reflect urban transformations and the restructuring of social life shaping the physical environment of a city. In Istanbul, however, recent changes in the physical environment have taken a different path from that of the past. The legal framework and organization of this forced transformation has rapidly developed. Such transformation projects will set into motion irreversible processes altering historic areas in Istanbul. On the one hand, new spaces for divergent formations are sought, utilizing the power of law. On the other hand, the stratification of the city, which dates back centuries, has been subjected to regeneration projects including conservation work. However, the preservation approach employed in these projects displays an inclination towards “gentrification” at the higher scale, which bears the risk of neglecting the authentic qualities of the actual urban fabric or the buildings. In other words, the underlying aim of such projects is the removal of the dilapidated, ruinous, poor and marginal character of the present via processes of gentrification. The documentary value of a structure consists of the qualities of a cultural asset which require preservation. In this regard, this paper will demonstrate the documentary values which are threatened by proposed urban transformation projects in the historic peninsula of Istanbul.

11.Planning a model Soviet city: Transforming Vladivostok under Stalin and Brezhnev
William Harrison Richardson
Pages 129 - 142
This article examines the two major projects for transforming the city of Vladivostok during Soviet times. The first was to make it a Stalinist city during the 1930s, and would have resulted in an almost complete reconstruction of the historic Tsarist city into a model of socialist city planning. The second project, beginning in the 1960s and continuing on into the 1980s, did transform the city dramatically according to mature socialist planning guidelines, and succeeded in making the city more livable than at any time in its past. This article compares the two plans and contrasts their successes and failures, their underlying goals and ideologies, and considers what the legacy of the two periods is for today’s post-Soviet city.

12.A historical and comparative analysis of the basic character of the Japanese planning system: Toward a drastic reform for decentralization and participation
Shun-ichi J. Watanebe
Pages 143 - 154
One of the issues that are often discussed in Japan now is the reform of the current city planning system, which was originated 120 years ago. The general direction of the reform seems to head for 'decentralization' and 'participation' and many concrete proposals have been publicized till now. And yet there are a few comprehensive analyses of what are really the problems of the city planning system as a whole. This paper tries to clarify the total structure of these problems by discussing the basic character of the Japanese planning system through the following 6 concepts or keywords that are abstracted out of its history. The detailed discussions of each concepts will lead us to the reform direction which will be opposite direction of them, namely:
(1) Centralized Style' against 'Decentralized Style;
(2) Bureaucrat Initiative' against 'Citizen Initiative;
(3) Expanding-City Image' against 'Shrinking-City Image;
(4) Construction Orientation' against 'Management Orientation; (5) One-Tier System' against 'Two-Tier System; and
(6) Non-Professionalism' against 'Professionalism

13.The complexity of urban transformation in China: New trends in current transitional era
Yuheng Li
Pages 155 - 168
The paper aims to analyze the complexity of urban transformation in China in the post-reform era and investigate the trends in the current transitional era. First, the paper reviews the urban transformation in the shift from centrally-planned economy to market economy: decentralization and urban autonomy; urbanization and urban physical development; globalization and urban economic restructuring. Then, the paper reveals the complexity of urban transformation through analyzing decentralization and urban governance; urban expansion and sustainable development; marginalized population and urban social management. The paper argues that the complexity of urban transformation lies in the mismatch between fast urban development and insufficient urban planning and management. In the facet of knowledge economy and enlarged urban-rural inequality, trends of urban transformation in this transitional era are analyzed and predicted: new urban economic restructuring toward knowledge economy; compact urban physical pattern and complementary development involving both urban and rural areas; comprehensive urban welfare that covers both urban citizens and rural immigrants.

14.Urban transformation of Seoul and Tokyo by legal redevelopment project
Seungyeou Cho
Pages 169 - 183
After World War II, Seoul and Tokyo had experienced similar urban problems as part of their rapid urbanization and had been developed western planning systems to modernize their urban structures. Seoul and Tokyo had very similar planning schemes for redevelopment, which consisted of legal urban redevelopment projects and subsidies under the Urban Redevelopment Law. The differences in their government operations system and application of development tools caused differences in their urban structures.

This article describes each government's efforts and legal systems to illustrate the spatial transform of central areas in Seoul and Tokyo using documentary research and GIS data. This article is intended to address implications on the downtown redevelopment policies of Seoul and Tokyo. And to conclude, 2 Asian mega cities have lost many traditional urban structures under legal redevelopment project until 1990s. Fortunately their planning schemes are changing by making them aware of how redevelopment projects should make conserve traditional urban structures.

15.Appropriating modernism: Apartheid and the South African township
Errol J. Haarhoff
Pages 184 - 195
Modernism has been used during the 20th century to support and justify political aims and agendas in nefarious ways. Although social inequality in South Africa has roots in its colonial past, it was during the 1950‟s that institutional segregation was formalized resulting in race- based urban spatial structures and inbuilt inequalities. The paper outlines how the modern movement provided a rationale for advancing this programme as a largely technical exercise that enabled the social and political contradictions involved to be sidestepped. Traced is the early impact of the modern movement in South Africa and the emergence of close relationships between local and European protagonists. The application of the modernist agenda is discussed in relation to the spatialisation of race, the emergence of the apartheid city in the 1960‟s, and the delivery of a mass housing programme in the segregated townships. Conclusions are drawn concerning the extent to which this legacy has resulted in highly inefficient cities that now confront post-apartheid South Africa in the 21st century.

16.ProNaF, Ciudad Juarez: Planning and urban transformation
Marisol Rodriguez, Hector Rivero
Pages 196 - 207
In the 1960s, the Mexican government promoted, through the National Border Program – ProNaF (Programa Nacional Fronterizo), a regional and urban planning iniciative to face an economic openness in the southern and northern borders cities which aimed to detonate an integrated development model. Mexican architect Mario Pani and Taller de Urbanismo, drawing on the ideas of major interventions already operated in Mexico City, especially the Mexico‟s National University urban project (UNAM), developed the urban plans. As part of this program, was proposed the first urban plan for Ciudad Juarez that incorporated a global economic vision, and was built between 1962-1966 a modern urban center known as Zona ProNaF, which proposed to lay out the foundations for the modern city. A particularly aspect is the concern to work with an “urban border proposal”, considering it as a transitional space between the American and Mexican city. The discussion submitted proposes a ProNaF – Ciudad Juarez study, analyzing three main elements of urban transformation in the planning history: the attempt to introduce the superblock, the civic center and the neighborhood unit. These two urban elements do not necessarily correspond to the fundamentals and principles established by the Modern Movement, but to the Anglo-Saxon urban tradition.

THEORY ARTICLES
17.Urban characteristics of Istanbul: Problem or potential?
İpek Yürekli, Arda İnceoğlu
Pages 208 - 218
In Turkey there is a general consensus on the evaluation of the urban environment. The general public as well as intellectual and academic circles will agree that something needs to be done in order to stop and then reverse the processes that destruct the city. On the other hand, urban life of Istanbul is flourishing in terms of variety and intensity, competing with major global metropolises. In other words, there are considerable tensions between the ‘urban culture’ of the city and the ideals of its citizens.

This paper focuses firstly on the analysis of the characteristics of Istanbul and then proposes a new perspective of understanding. This new perspective considers these characteristics as potential design and planning principles for future implementations. There is an urgent need for new perspectives on Istanbul as well as design approaches originating from these perspectives. This need arises from stereotypical methods to the understanding and design of the city. This paper tries to define the characteristics of Istanbul beyond these stereotypes. Urban characteristics of Istanbul are defined as continuous change, contradictions, incompleteness, ambiguity, heterogeneity and being unpossessed. Design approaches appropriate for stable, consistent, closed, definite, homogenous and possessed cities would not be appropriate for this city. When working for this city, the designer must be aware of the characteristics of Istanbul, allow for plurality and provide flexibility and open-endedness - even randomness if necessary. A new architecture, which can relate to its location and is unique, can be likely through this approach. The intensity and flexibility of uses within various public spaces of the city actually presents the potential for an energetic and humane architecture. Finally a design proposal based on the mentioned characteristics is discussed. This proposal presents a possible new way of integrating ‘planning’ and ‘spontaneity’.

18.Damages and failures observed in infill walls of reinforced concrete frame after 1999 Kocaeli earthquake
Serkan Yatağan
Pages 219 - 228
The infilled walls are used to provide enclosure, sub-division of space and weather protection in reinforced concrete frames. In addition, the infill walls are subjected to the horizontal loads while restraining the movement of the frame systems. If the infill walls do not resist the horizontal loads, the wall is damaged and some cracks occur. Especially, faulty design and unsymmetrical arrangement of the infill walls cause the damages and failures in the infill walls. The earthquake damages of some buildings reveal the fact that the infill walls do strengthen the building. In this work, damages occurred in the infill walls during 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake are defined and some evaluations are made for the causes of the damages observed in infill walls. The paper also suggests the means of improving the load carrying capacity of infill walls.

19.Ecological corridors and clusters for environmental master plan and environmental management studies of Istanbul
Sultan Gündüz, Gülşen Güler, Ahmet Cengiz Yıldızcı
Pages 229 - 240
One of the driving forces for the sustainable development of a sub-region, region or a country is the effective development of environmental masterplans and environmental management plans. These studies are complementary to sustainable policies in order to ensure effective executive implementation of such plans and management proposals. These guiding studies have naturally to be in line with scientific knowledge, given natural areas are finite and human-kind's impact is profound. Therefore landscape ecology and ecologically based studies are becoming increasingly important. This study examines ways of looking at Istanbul, the biggest metropolis of Turkey, in terms of its ecological clusters and corridors and current environmental master plans and management plans.



 
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