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ITU J Faculty Arch: 7 (2)
Volume: 7  Issue: 2 - December 2010
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Orhan Hacýhasanoðlu
Page II

2.Cultural Landscapes
Y. Çaðatay Seçkin
Pages 1 - 3
Abstract | Full Text PDF

3.The embodiment of cultural landscape... A tour of the no-monuments
Concha Lapayese, Darío Gazapo
Pages 4 - 13
The embodiment of cultural landscape...a tour of the no-monuments is an essay made of three Conceptual Actions and an Epilogue, where we operate into a critical position in between art and architecture, describing another understanding of the (beauty of a) cultural landscape.

The Conference ECLAS`2010 let us to build a conversation framework with other international strategies about the different ways of continuing building our inner and external landscapes.

To promote a kind of (Beautyscape) Laboratory, a place to educate the aesthetic and ethic sensibility, previous to do any social act into our landcities, let say politic act, architectural act, and economic act. An alternative Space-biologic Laboratory (SBLab.)

We operate from the Cultural Landscape Research Group, at Madrid Polytechnic University, trough the studio Hybrid Actions in between Art and Architecture on the degree course and Construction of the Landscape on the postgraduate course, at the Madrid Architecture School, as encounter places, where to redraw the borderline between disciplines and the reality.

4.Cultural landscapes: Negotiation between global and local
Francesca Mazzino, Patrizia Burlando
Pages 14 - 20
Since the origin of the use of the term ‘landscape’ in a modern sense the cultural dimension has been the key to understand the relationship between the human beings and the places of their life, to describe the co-evolution between natural and human processes. The first part of the paper considers the meaning of ‘cultural landscape’ analyzing the evolution of the international Charters concerning the various aspects of the landscape preservation and protection which reveal the progressive extension of the definition of “cultural landscape”: from UNESCO, Paris, 1972, to ICOMOS, Ename, 2007. In the second part, the characteristics of the cultural landscapes are considered: integrity, authenticity, rarity, scarcity, identity, in terms of stratification and historic permanence of land uses, the most significant historic periods of landscape transformations; alteration, disappearance of relevant elements and the diffusion of the multiculturalism. In the third part the weakness of some cultural landscapes will be considered in which rejection and degradation of the cultural resources are caused by different reasons (various historic cultural landscapes vulnerability, socio-economic sustainability lack). With the increase of the easiness of access to the resources produced in others places conditioned by the global market many landscapes are destined to disappear while modern landscapes with new structural and functional characters will grow.

The landscape in Calcinara-Sestri Ponente, west of Genoa is taken as example for the study of a contemporary degraded cultural landscape. Its degradation has been mainly caused by the realization of operations planned by the town planning and by “spontaneous” transformations out of its control with the creation of new “hybrid” landscapes between town and countryside. “All this is part of our culture which claims respect and offers a new and stimulating subject to the landscape. In the future the profession of landscape architect will overcome its present limits... and apply itself to create with mobility of order and beauty.” (Brickerhoff Jackson, 2003).

5.Potential landscape architecture contributions toward a more sustainable water management on the island of Gozo, Malta
Damian Perez Beverinotti, Erich Buhmann, Matthias Pietsch
Pages 21 - 34
Intelligent water management was always the basis for settlement in the Mediterranean. Natural factors and cultural behavior have slowly shaped the Mediterranean islands’ landscape through millennia. Island communities are especially sensitive to anthropogenic pressures. Accordingly, rapid population growth and related development over the 20th century have poised a great challenge to preserving landscape values of the islands. Recently, on the island of Gozo, part of the Maltese archipelago, great interest has been shown in the preservation of the rural landscape characteristics. Here, agriculture is a traditional aspect of the identity, which contributes greatly to the picturesque qualities of the countryside. Practices related to soil and water conservation, together with the island’s geomorphologic characteristics, produce the unique scenery of the rural areas.

Agriculture has progressively diminished in importance as an economic activity in Malta, moreover urban developments have been constantly increasing at the expense of both cultivated land and natural countryside. Water management is one of the island’s most critical issues. Rainfall is the only natural source of water while agriculture is the main single user. Local watershed characteristics are favorable for the storage of rainwater; nevertheless, groundwater depletion takes place. Gozo is already affected by an emerging need for sustainability and to face the challenge to adapt to climate change uncertainties. Adaptation is therefore necessary, in the short and longer term, to address the resulting impacts. The decline in agricultural use on the steeper slopes of the Gozo valleys has lead to the decline of rubble walls, the main structure of the terraced landscape. The disappearing rubble walls and changing agricultural practice are leading, together with increasing runoff caused by increased paving and building, to severe soil erosion during the rainy season.

The area addressed in this study has undergone major changes produced by tourism and development intensification in the last decades. Agricultural land-use comprises most of the area of the watershed whose outlet point is located in the village of Xlendi. The area is prone to flash flooding and therefore more sensitive to changes in the precipitation patterns and increase in the mean sea level.

A methodological approach is proposed to integrate the biotic, abiotic and cultural components of the landscape bringing forward the processes of importance for each one and also for water management.

Responses and adaptations of the cultural landscape to the aforementioned problems are discussed and the possible contributions of landscape architecture are shown. Landscape architects can contribute to the redesign of the catchment areas of the valleys on all level of planning and design. Landscape Architects could help to translating the ecological knowledge on rivers ecosystem to the civil engineer redesigning the roads in the valley in order to create adequate technical solutions using natural methods to its optimum. On the more detailed design level street scapes should be understood as part of the valley system with ecological and aesthetical needs for appreciation of cultural landscapes.

6.A working landscape for New Orleans
Peter Hermens, Jaap Van Der Salm, Chris Van Der Zwet
Pages 35 - 50
This paper studies how strategies aiming at working landscapes can simultaneously improve stormwater resiliency and spatial quality in two suburban neighborhoods of New Orleans that were hard hit by hurricane Katrina in 2005. A spatial strategy mitigates stormwater flooding problems during a 1/10-year storm event and explores the potential of water as an amenity in the city.

The paper identifies the need for a new approach by quantifying problems concerning (1) hydrology, (2) vegetation and (3) vacancy. Based on topography, subsidence rate, problems with rain flooding and the original appearance of the landscape, 4 landscape zones are distinguished that provide basic concepts for interventions on all scale levels, addressing the 3 problems stated above. A new water plan for the area based on retain-store-discharge principles and a robust network of native vegetation form a new landscape framework. By utilizing the empty space(s) due to vacancies following the hurricane to serve as water storage, this problem turns into an opportunity to re-create attractive residential areas with a high quality of life.

The results of this study illustrate how preparation for the future and a changing climate pose challenges, but also offer opportunities for the creation of attractive delta cities.

7.Understanding changing city culture; PSR-method as a discourse analysis tool for historic urban green heritage
Kati Susi-Wolff
Pages 51 - 57
Historic urban green spaces are an essential part of our urban landscape and heritage. In changing urban culture green spaces and parks have culturally represented historical continuity. Historic parks contain in distilled forms many of the essential features of cities and constitute identity.

Heritage and conservation have traditionally been understood as preserving. We need new methods in order to understand changing cultural processes and heritage. This paper argues that the Pressure-State-Response (PSR) model originally developed by Canadian statistician Anthony Friend in the 1970’s and further developed for environmental management by OECD (1998) and Hukkinen (2007, 2008) could be adapted in landscape architecture and historic urban park discourse.

The paper focuses to six park conservation projects in Helsinki, Finland, which occurred during the years 1985-2000. The main research materials are policy protocols, statements, plan reports and half structured interviews with main actors in the planning processes. The main question is what kind of cultural indicators of park heritage could be defined in terms of PSR–model in these park conservation and heritage discourses.

8.Olympics legacy: The London Olympics 2012
Gülþen Güler, Robert Holden
Pages 58 - 73
The reasons for proposing a London 2012 bid are outlined in the light of London city planning over the past sixty years. The processes influencing the bid for the London 2012 Olympics are investigated in respect of the lessons from Barcelona and Sydney. The role of environmental and landscape improvement is examined and the importance of legacy is described and analysed. The cost of Olympiads since Sydney 2000 are described and compared. Then progress of the London 2012 Olympics development is described relative to regeneration of East London. Finally the effects of current proposals to cut back the costs of the 2012 Olympics are considered. Olympic Games play significant roles in host city’s economy as well as other outcomes such as tourism, culture, unemployment, infrastructure. However the economy can never describe the whole picture of Olympic Games’ gainnings, it is one of the most significant sign before, during and after the event. All of the expenditures have different values at different legacy levels. Although post election budget cut-backs in the United Kingdom have placed a question mark on the costs; the proposed urban legacy make the city beautiful and London East End livable.

9.Ways to sustainable brownfield regeneration in Istanbul
Ayçim Türer Baþkaya
Pages 74 - 88
This study focuses on the brownfield sites owned by governmental agencies in Istanbul. It attempts to prepare an inventory for these under-utilized sites in order to explore ways to sustainable brownfield regeneration.

This study utilizes GIS technology for the dispersion and classification of brownfield sites. Besides the GIS studies, existing scholarly and government literatures are used for gathering information on the development of brownfield regeneration in Istanbul and the factors effective on the current regeneration trends.

Today, some obstacles hinder the regeneration process in Istanbul such as indefinite policies, uncertainty about legal liability, difficulty to estimate capital costs, absence of a consistent regeneration framework, insufficient practical knowledge, absence of a city-wide database system for brownfields, absence of some plans within the planning hierarchy, public opposition, difficulty to combine collective studies and competition from greenfields. This study identifies ways to overcome these obstacles and to gain sustainable brownfield regeneration for the benefit of Istanbul megacity. These ways are collected under 6 main categories as contamination related, political – institutional, legal, economic, plan-design based and communal issues. By following these ways, sustainable brownfield regeneration can be gained in Istanbul.

10.Balfour community forest: linking forest use and management through public participation in Israel
Heike Kaiser
Pages 89 - 105
Community Forests play an important role within the urban green space. Such forests represent nature close to where people live, offer unique recreational settings, and provide special educational environments, e.g. for children and people with special needs. The objective of this article is to link recreational forest use and management by elaborating a sustainable development concept for a peri-urban forest and by showing approaches of how local communities can participate in the processes of planning, designing, establishing, and managing their forest.

This article contributes the example of the participatory development concept for Balfour Forest. The area is located in northern Israel, and it is part of a replanted forest network around Nazareth. It constitutes a cultural landscape that origins from the 20th century, representing the unique legacy of forestation efforts in Israel, with some plantings dating back as far as the British Mandate Period.

The case of the Balfour Community Forest is presented and approaches to shaping peri-urban forests according to the (ever changing) preferences and needs of local urban societies are discussed. Such approaches imply that peri-urban forests are managed on the basis of differing local needs and use preferences in order to become sustainable cultural landscapes.

11.Understanding the spatial and historical characteristics of agricultural landscapes in Istanbul
Bahar Baþer, Hayriye Eþbah Tunçay
Pages 106 - 120
In this paper, we will try to find out the potentials of agricultural landscape mosaic of Istanbul, which still contains the inherent traces of the local agrarian culture, even though it has been absorbed and embedded in the mass production urban spaces. We pursue a process oriented, spatial and culture based modeling approach with the emphasis on the potentials of agricultural landscape mosaic of Istanbul. Our findings showed that urban agriculture, especially bostan, has been an indisputable part of Istanbul’s historic development and is an important opportunity to maintain sustainable urban landscape and viability of urban society.

This study primarily uses theory and methodology from geography, geographic information science, and landscape ecology to analyze land use dynamics in the study area. The study consists of four parts. First, the description of the general characteristics and environmental facts of the study area are given. The second part contains the historical background of the agrarian culture and its spatial traces, which existed in today. The third part has been conducted at the interactions between agricultural land-uses and other land use types and the ambitions within spatial planning to define an ordered typology. Ikonos images dated June 2005 has been used for the analyses in Geographical Information Systems’ (GIS). Finally, the findings of the case study are summarized, along with arguments that underline the need for further case studies of agricultural uses at intra and peri urban landscapes.

12.Slovak agricultural landscape – transition responses
Katarína Kristiánová, Jana Adamková
Pages 121 - 132
Cultural landscapes - manmade and man dependent landscapes, those that usually do not enjoy specific protection, they are subject to most dynamic landscape changes, reflecting the changes in culture, society, economy and nature. In Slovakia, where agricultural land covers around 50 percent of the total area, traditional small-block mosaic agricultural landscape reflected the collectivization after 1948, resulting in large blocks of arable land. After 1989 again the new political and socio-economic situation of transition from centrally planned to market economy has affected the changes of agricultural landscape.

The paper aims to examine the transition responses of current Slovak agricultural landscape, using examples of cadastral areas from Nitra region, where rural agricultural landscape is a typical representative of cultural landscape, although not protected as a cultural heritage, still having inseparable aesthetic, historic and ecological values. This case area of different landscape types including arable land, meadow pastures, vineyards, orchards, etc., within the poles of urban growth and outside as well, is giving various examples of current trends of cultural landscape change. To identify the change connected with socio – economical transition two main methods were used: a comparison of current aerial photographs with available information from cadastral maps and identification of planned changes in spatial plans. These methods were complemented by observation on sites.

The research shows, that still disarranged ownership rights towards agricultural land, unformed relations between owners and farmers, most of them which are still co-operatives, and agricultural policies not addressing these problems, influence distortions in land use and land markets, resulting in physical changes of landscape structures. The still expected transition of agricultural sector in Slovakia, rearrangement of property rights and expected emergence of market with agricultural land will most probably mean new impulses towards landscape change.

13.Perspectives on gender in design education: A four years comparative study
Ömür Barkul, Ayla Ayyýldýz Potur
Pages 133 - 145
Gender indicators have the special function of pointing out gender related comparison over time. An indicator is a pointer. It can be a measurement, a number, a fact, an opinion or a perception that points at a specific condition or situation, and measures changes in that condition or situation. Although there are several gender indicators, research on diversity issues related to divergent thinking is quite important, since it is most critical to advancement in design education. Because, the question of gender differences in divergent thinking is a complex, controversial and contentious topic, little attention was yet devoted to study the assessment of gender effects on divergent thinking through psychometric tools for the benefits of architectural design education. Although researchers have attempted to measure differences between man and woman in order to provide a better understanding of the women’s under-representation in creative fields by identifying physical and psychological differences, a number of questions remain unanswered in architectural design area and they required to be tested in a more empirical way. The aim of this four years experimental study is to explore gender perspectives in architectural design education. A total of 599 undergraduates from different level of design education took part in this comparative experimental study. In order to observe the development of the research and to make a comparison, the first results of the first two years study (147 undergraduates from different level of design education) were given in this paper. Because of the difficulties of defining and operationalising the concept of divergent thinking, the most widely researched and analyzed divergent thinking tests which supported by more evidence of validity and reliability than any others were employed. In similar to the findings of the first two years, the results of this four years comparative study that investigates gender differences through divergent thinking measures with the sample of approximately six hundred undergraduates from different level of education indicated that there is not a statistically significant difference among genders. Although this is the first comprehensive study investigating gender issues through divergent thinking measures with psychometric ways in architectural education literature, findings supported some of others in the general education literature. In spite of these theoretical and experimental results, what can be the reasons of the existence few female role models in creative fields of architecture and design related disciplines discussed in the conclusion part of the study.

14.A reflection on “the disclosing whole” as the primary subject matter of design research
Ahmet Zeki Turan
Pages 146 - 162
The objective of this essay is to present a conceptual reflection for understanding the original existence of the designing subject and the designed object within the concept of the “disclosing whole”. Inspired from the “disclosive structure” of alethic hermeneutics, disclosing whole is a unifying principle among the three core subject matters of design discourse: the designer, the product and the process; it is an ontological level presented as the primary subject matter of design theory. Methodologically, the inquiry is based on a deductive approach rather than analytic induction; the essentially implicit whole is reduced into its core elements to have an explicit understanding about its basic process. Exploring the way to propositional knowledge in design, the unknowable whole is spontaneously spaced within itself, interrupted and deduced into its primary sections: the synchronic “self” and the sequential “world”. Disclosure of the whole is argued to be from central complexity to peripheral simplicity indicating a “modal difference” for which design is introduced as a compatibility potential. Natural and artificial states of the creative whole are presented. In order to gain an insight about mutual contexts of design and use, the sides of construction and deconstruction are introduced as the primordial faces of human creation. Finally, potentials of the idea of disclosing whole and the understanding of the basic deduction are discussed for an ontologically, epistemologically and ethically articulated ground for design theory and philosophy as well as for the cultures of sustainment.

15.Tackling eco-urbanity: Housing and placemaking at the urban edge
A. Senem Deviren
Pages 163 - 184
With more than half of the world population is now living in urban settlements, urban growth is almost inevitable. But our cities are not growing in healthier and ecological ways, they are ‘sprawling’. Much of this sprawl is a result of new housing developments and constructions for their related services, occurring rapidly one after the other at urban peripheries. There are several principles and guidelines offered for ‘ecologic’ urban planning and ‘eco’ or ‘green’ building design. However, most of these guidelines are rigid, contemporary market-driven and global ‘checklists’ with no ability to inform local urban design and interdisciplinary practice and polarizing the differences in design disciplines with their incompetent content that is far from addressing the symbolically, ecologically and functionally powered interrelations between built environments and nature. This paper addresses ecological housing design and planning at urban edges by proposing an updated urban design strategy –the placemaking strategy- and testing its role in monitoring eco-urban development with actual case studies on two ecological settlements at the urban edge of Linz, Austria. The study investigates and highlights the importance of architecture and landscape combined comprehensive urban design strategy to preserve land, prevent consumption in all terms, to utilize the on-site resources, and use of renewable energy sources, to improve functional and social performance of urban contexts at urban edges and maintain healthy living conditions for the inhabitants for longer term goals of livability and sustainability.

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