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ITU J Faculty Arch: 6 (1)
Volume: 6  Issue: 1 - June 2009
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Orhan Hacıhasanoğlu
Page I

2.Quality of urban life
Handan Dülger Türkoğlu, Robert W. Marans
Pages 1 - 5
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3.Neighborhood satisfaction, sense of community, and attachment: Initial findings from Famagusta quality of urban life study
Derya Oktay, Ahmet Rüstemli, Robert W. Marans
Pages 6 - 20
The concern about the quality of urban life in cities has led to an increasing interest in findings from surveys aiming to measure the quality of life in particular places. A major research project in measuring the quality of urban life that utilizes a model from both a conceptual and empirical perspective has been launched in metro Detroit (Marans, 2003). This project has formed the core of the “International Program of Research on Quality of Urban Life” coordinated at the University of Michigan, USA. As part of this program, parallel studies are underway in several world cities including Famagusta (Gazimagusa), N. Cyprus, a dynamic city of approximately 50,000 residents including many university students. Within the context of the Famagusta Area Study (FAS), both objective and subjective measures of quality of life was compiled. Using face- to-face interviews, 398 residents were interviewed in eight Famagusta neighborhoods during the summer and fall 2007.

The paper first presents a brief overview of the methodology and then reviews findings covering 191 respondents living in four neighborhoods which represent the four different growth patterns and differ in terms of their social-spatial character and their housing types. The four neighborhoods are: the Walled City (Surici in Turkish), Baykal, Karakol, and Tuzla. The paper mainly explores the impacts of certain social-spatial factors such as satisfaction with neighbourhood safety, walkability in the neighbourhood, satisfaction with parks and recreational facilites, the maintenance of houses in the neighbourhood, the maintenance of streets and open spaces, the availability of trees, the vehicular circulation, car parking and the accessibility of common public spaces, the density of traffic in the neighbourhood, the level of noise, the level of crowding, and the length of residence and the ‘satisfaction with the neighbourhood as a place to live’. In addition, factors influencing the sense of neighbourhood as home, the degree of attachment to place, and the degree of belonging to community are examined. The major findings reveal that satisfaction with neighbourhood does not necessarily associate with place attachment, and similarly, despite realization of lacking certain social-spatial qualities in the neighbourhood, people may feel attached to the place because of certain attributes. However, there is a positive relationship between satisfaction and feelings of neighbourhood as home.

4.Walking behavior in Istanbul: Individual attributes, neighborhood context and perceived safety
Perver K. Baran, William R. Smith, Handan D. Türkoğlu, Robert W. Marans, Fulin Bölen
Pages 21 - 40
Walking, for both utilitarian and recreational purposes, is one of the most common physical activities and is an integral part of daily active living. The socio-ecological perspective suggest that built and social environments act together to influence walking behavior. This paper examines how neighborhood and micro-environment safety contexts are associated with utilitarian and recreational walking. Data for this study were obtained from a large quality of life study conducted in metro Istanbul (1635 face-to-face interviews). The results show that utilitarian and recreational walking are influenced by perceived neighborhood safety and signs of territorial functioning (maintenance) in the immediate context. In addition, busy places and an assessment of the area as a good place to walk encourage both types of walking. Several, differences are found, however. The differences between the factors influencing the two types of walking behavior relate to a number of individual attributes and neighborhood social networks, neighborhood density, number of cars in the household, and the overall satisfaction with living in the area. Overall, these findings indicate that the concept of “walking” should not be considered a uni-dimensional construct, but rather there seems to be types of walking behavior, with different “causes” associated with those types. Implications of the research are drawn for possible policy to encourage types of walking behavior.

5.Comparing the residential developments in gated and non-gated neighborhoods in Istanbul
Lale Berköz
Pages 41 - 59
Since the 1970’s, construction of the Bosphorus Bridge and the new highways, the rise in the use of private cars have increased the accessibility in Istanbul. Besides, Istanbul has gone through a structural transformation, becoming a multi-centred city. Such factors have naturally accelerated the decentralization of housing areas in Istanbul.

Since the 1990’s, the preferences of the people from the elite social classes in Istanbul have shifted from the heterogeneous housing areas to homogenous places isolated from the dense central areas of Istanbul. As a result, mass housing areas have spread rapidly in the peripheries of the city. In this new transformation, the elite people living in such mass housing areas have found a chance to obtain their cultural and social expectations.

This phenomenon has gained significance due to the demand for the northern and north- eastern districts of the city since the 1999 earthquake in the Marmora Region. Since we know the patterns of housing area development and density change, the potential future developments can be anticipated.

The researches carried out until now have demonstrated that quality of the residence and residential environment is influential in the overall resident satisfaction. In terms of environmental quality variables such as basic urban services and amenities, it has been determined that the housing areas within the scope the project have high standards. As a result of this fact, people from high income group tend to choose housing areas in the peripheries of the city.

This purpose of this article is to assess the factors that improve housing and environmental quality satisfaction in gated single-family and non-gated mass housing developments in Istanbul

6.The relationship between environmental quality level and housing sale prices in the Istanbul Metropolitan Area
Elif Alkay
Pages 60 - 76
In this study, the relationship between environmental quality level and housing sale prices is examined in the Istanbul Metropolitan Area (IMA). Examination is carried out in two steps. Firstly, the environmental quality index is developed by utilizing principal component analysis. The geographical scope of the index is 32 districts within boundaries of the IMA. The index is achieved related to subjective and objective indicators. It is seen that natural advantages, dissatisfactions based on high density, and some negative externalities resulted from industrial areas have impacts on the environmental quality index levels. Secondly, the relationship between the index levels and housing sale prices is explored. For this reason, correlation coefficient and chi-square goodness-of-fit tests are utilized. Results provide enough evidence that there is a positive and strong linear relationship between the environmental quality and housing sale prices at the district level in the IMA; the index levels and housing sale prices are dependent ranks.

7.An assessment of quality of place (QoP) research for Istanbul
Hatice Ayataç, Şevkiye Şence Türk
Pages 77 - 93
Quality of Place (QoP) is a new concept, the measurability of which is discussed in the literature. It is assessed within the same context as similar concepts which include the word “place”, such as sense of place, place identity, place attachment, and on place-based concepts such as life satisfaction, human well-being. It is compared with quality of life (QoL) that aims to identify the best places to live and discuss the differences between places. Although these concepts overlap, they are assessed in different terms in interdisciplinary studies. When the research, printed documents and implementations of the researchers are assessed, there are several determinants - the scale of place, the current time period, the type of place and its manner of usage, users - which influence the measurability of QoP. They are used to question the success of urban place in developed countries. At this point, this study aims to question QoP on the socio-economic development level. The problem is defined as to whether the development level will be the criteria in QoP at different scales. The research is developed in two stages. In the first stage, the position and role of QoP in the existing literature is assessed, and the determinants affecting its measurability are summarized. In the second stage, the place-based research in Turkey, a developing country, and its largest metropolitan city, Istanbul, are examined in chronological order. This research, participated in to a considerable extent by the writers, has been developed from the perspective of a planning discipline. A literature survey is used in the research. In the research, a common synthesis of the indicators, limitations used and references made to QoP is devised. As a conclusion, the meaning of QoP for Istanbul is limited to the house and its environment. Therefore, consideration has been given to QoP in terms of its development level, bringing gains to both the city and its citizens. Moreover, it will effectively improve the usage of the resources in the planning process and will be a leading source for public policies.

8.Notions and perceptions of quality of life: What clues to intervene in the city?
Teresa Costa Pinto
Pages 94 - 108
Using empiric data on quality of life in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, this paper describes notions of quality of life of the inhabitants of the LMA and their forms of perception and assessment of quality of life. These data are analysed with a view to reflection on the complexity of the variables intervening between objective conditions and subjective perceptions of quality of life and contributing to a discussion on forms of intervention towards improving quality in urban settings.

9.Strategic quality planning in urban environment
Nuran Zeren Gülersoy, Ahsen Özsoy, Azime Tezer, Reyhan Genli Yiğiter, Zeynep Günay
Pages 109 - 125
The aim of this paper is to discuss the diverse factors on the provision of environmental quality and to put forward a strategic approach for quality planning in degraded and/or decaying urban areas where historical and architectural values of the environment have to be sustained. The paper explores the concept of urban quality within the context of total quality management through the evaluation of urban design practices from Turkey and abroad. In addition, it clarifies the various components and their interrelations to build the basis for the strategic framework in which community has a significant role, is encouraged to participate to the process. As a result, a conceptual model is presented for future urban design practices in Turkey providing satisfaction for all levels of participants, emphasizing correlated systems, developing partnership mechanisms and balancing common interests through a sustainable structure.

10.Waterfronts: Potentials for improving the quality of urban life
Fatma Erkök
Pages 126 - 145
In the contemporary city, the success of the quality of life embodied in public spaces is increasingly accepted as a guarantee factor for an overall success. As such, cities have realized the importance of the role of water for a better quality of life in the city. Many cities around the world are creating ambitious waterfront projects, trying to solve their problems related to water and combining this with improved public spaces.

The paper, with the ultimate aim in mind as drawing some recommendations for Istanbul, examines some chosen case cities in Europe, namely Rotterdam, Amsterdam, Hamburg and Antwerp, with the aim to search how they establish their urban policies involving water, how they create spaces of interaction with water and contribute to the urban life of citizens and as a result alter the quality of urban life. Each case city, with its waterfront projects is assessed along the following series of quality criteria: Urban space/recreation, Housing, Cultural environment, Land use pattern and Infrastructure/mobility. As methodology, interviews with policy makers and planners in these cities, presentations by policy makers, and written policy statements are used as tools to help interpret the way in which these cities through these development projects try to re-install the water culture of the city and how this achievement helps improving the quality of urban life.

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