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ITU J Faculty Arch: 4 (1)
Volume: 4  Issue: 1 - June 2007
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Orhan Hacıhasanoğlu
Page II

2.Plurality, diversity and multiculturalism
Tüzin Baycan Levent
Pages 1 - 4
Abstract | Full Text PDF

3.From outsiders to on- paper equals to cultural curiosities? The trajectory of diversity in the USA
John Betancur
Pages 5 - 19
When I first came to the USA to attend graduate school, I went to a southern university with a group of scholars from Latin America. Immediately after the plane landed, we were directed to the registration and admissions office of the university. We filled out a form and waited for our names to be called. When I finally understood that the voice in the microphone was calling me, I approached the desk anxiously. This was my first time outside of my home country and I did not speak much English. As soon as the clerk received my form, she pointed to a line on the application speaking in a loud voice that resonated throughout the entire auditorium— she had not turned off the microphone. After some repetition, I finally understood what she was saying, “where are you from”? I replied, “Latin America.” “Why then did you identify yourself as white?” Looking at my white arm I mumbled words without making any sense. Finally, I asked, “What is then my race?” “B R O W N,” she emphasized with a bit of incredulity. I looked around confused noticing that my colleagues were correcting their forms. I felt embarrassed. That moment marked the beginning of my racial transformation.

4.Multicultural diversity and migrant entrepreneurship: The case of the Netherlands
Mediha Şahin, Peter Nijkamp, Tüzin Baycan Levent
Pages 20 - 44
With the advent of the era of mass migration in Europe, the issue of cultural diversity (CD ) has gained increasing social and political interest. There is a changing and often contradictory relationship between immigration, the increasing CD as a result of migration, and the development of global cities as desirable places to live and to work. Of special interest here are the SMEs (Small and Medium-sized Enterprises), which are often owned by migrants. Native and migrant entrepreneurs tend to differ in terms of their commercial opportunities, their business features, management styles, networks and associations, and market niches obtained in cities. The aim of this paper is to explore and review differences in entrepreneurial attitude both between natives and migrants and within migrant groups, and to explain these differences by means of distinct social and cultural indicators (derived from the cultural backgrounds of the entrepreneurs concerned) on the basis of a sample in the Netherlands.

5.Whose identity? Valuing the culture built heritage in diverse and tensioned societies
Hisham Elkadi
Pages 45 - 55
The UNESCO declaration on cultural diversity in 2002 has raised more questions than answers. More recent events around the World have highlighted the immediate need for legislative actions to protect cultural built heritage in tensioned societies. This paper discusses the potential global risks that face cultural built Heritage. The paper argues that such risks are not only limited to regions where military operations are taking place but also to nations where questions of identity and cultural diversity are raised. The paper questioned the reasons and the impact of the rise of ethno nationalism on the protection of cultural built heritage. The different discourses of these groups that will lead to destruction of cultural artefacts are also explored. In order to properly legislate means for the protection of vulnerable cultural built heritage in conflict areas, the underline value system should be clarified and the values under threat identified. The paper concludes with a plea to move our understanding and definition of culture from the previous ‘old’ definition with relation to ‘people’ to a ‘new’ one which is more relevant to context.

6.Ecological concepts necessary to the conservation of biodiversity in urban environments
Sandra Sweeney, Emrah Engindeniz, Sultan Gündüz
Pages 56 - 72
Increasingly, landscape architects, planners and other land-use practitioners have the task of creating functional landscapes that maintain biodiversity. They need to be familiar with a range of evolving concepts and techniques that have been identified as crucial in the conservation of biodiversity. We discuss key concepts, eg. island biogeography, minimum viable populations, metapopulations, homogenization, extinction debt, and patch dynamics, which link species richness to biodiversity at the regional scale. We use birds as a scaling example to demonstrate the range of research necessary to assess biodiversity across multiple scales in an urban environment.

7.A building cost estimation model based on functional elements
Hakan Yaman, Elçin Taş
Pages 73 - 87
The objectives of this paper is to introduce a generic computer aided building cost estimation model based on functional elements for Turkish construction sector projects which will be used in feasibility and schematic design phases. The research design was based on the building functional elements method and a building cost estimation model based on functional elements works on a cost database was suggested. Underlying principles and basic steps of cost estimation based on functional elements was explained by means of computer-based cost estimation process. In order to automate the manual building cost estimation process, the software based on functional elements was developed. The software is currently in the testing phase and is being used for educational purposes. Making use of both public sector and current market prices in the cost estimation process, increasing number of projects stored in the database for more accurate results, estimating costs of different types of projects and estimating the structural functional element percent more precisely are suggested for future research. As the number of the similar projects in database is increased, the accuracy of the cost estimation is also increased. Estimators and graduate students can use the software to estimate building cost of residential projects in feasibility and schematic design phases.

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