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ITU J Faculty Arch: 2 (1)
Volume: 2  Issue: 1 - June 2005
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EDITORIAL
1.Editorial
Orhan Hacıhasanoğlu
Page II

DOSSIER EDITORIAL
2.Re-thinking architectural education
Belkıs Uluoğlu, Türkan Ulusu Uraz
Pages 1 - 5
Abstract | Full Text PDF

DOSSIER ARTICLES
3.European architectural education in motion
Herman Neuckermans
Pages 6 - 10
Looking closely at the ongoing transformations of architectural education in Europe, several issues are popping up.
Think of how architecture and architectural education are coping with the changing concepts of time and space, with the emergence of placelessness, of mobility and virtuality. Think of the important question: what is the knowledge base of architecture and how we can (through this) reinforce the competence and social / professional position of an architect? What about the scientific base(ment) of architecture (that as a whole escapes the pure scientific debate)? Think of the shifts in the design studio in this digital era and subsequently the need for an interactive digital portfolio. How do schools of architecture cope with the given of lifelong learning? How do we see the issue of identity of schools in a changing European context imposing a unifying Ba-Ms system on all higher education? What about the unique focus on the education of the architect-practitioner as the only aim of schools of architecture?
Many subjects, but too much to deal with within the scope of one text. Therefore we decided to focus on two of these, the latter two, which appeared to be of common interest between the editors and the author.

4.Learning to design in the studio: A 2x2 model
Gabriela Goldschmidt
Pages 11 - 20
The design studio continues to be the default core of architectural education. On the assumption that no good alternative is available at present, this paper proposes a model of the design process in the studio as a step towards a theory of design pedagogy. The 2x2 model is sensitive to two types of complementarities: on the one hand the two types of learning that take place in the studio, i.e., conceptual and professional learning, and on the other hand the important impact of inputs that are not task-dependent, i.e., personal input by the (student) designer and instructional input. The effectiveness of the process of designing that is being rehearsed in the studio is contingent on control over the perception-conception continuum which, in turn, hinges on acquired representational expertise.

5.From systematic methods to the metaphorical approach in the design studio
Nezih Ayıran
Pages 21 - 51
Defining design as “a form of problem solving” is a definition, which normal science-based approaches as well as design instruction approaches of today‟s general design studios depend on. Design studios‟ adapting this very definition which is imported from a totally different tradition and which is far apart from reflecting the real characteristics of design plays a negative role on student productivity and motivation. Design‟s being identified as an interpretative and hermeneutical event seems much more appropriate for its nature. Based on this definition at design studios, it is expected that productivity and motivation will increase. The importance that metaphors gain in a hermeneutical event makes them one of the basic notions of design studios. Views in this article have been tried to be implemented in the undergraduate design studio of author as a tryout. It will be presented some information and sample studies regarding this experiment in the sixth chapter.

6.Information and Communication Technologies in Design Studio: New Tools, Strategies and Techniques at Work
Arzu Erdem, Burak Pak
Pages 52 - 61
The latest technological innovations in ICT led to a paradigm shift from mechanical to digital resulting in a remarkable change in design conception and its application. The architecture of information age is varied, and this variation is a potent source for teaching and research. The evolving free form vocabularies [and the techniques to generate and realize them] contribute to the breakdown between disciplines: the software tools to develop these forms are shared by a variety of disciplines, thus blurring the boundaries between specialized professional practices. This paper aims to discuss the use of integrated methods and approaches in architectural design process through various approaches and models which are implemented and tested in ITU Faculty of Architecture.

7.A paradigm shift in the first year design education
Fatma Erkök, Çiğdem Eren, Funda Uz Sönmez, Semra Aydınlı
Pages 62 - 78
Today a remarkable paradigm shift in design issues necessitates rethinking the architectural education. All the concepts, values, techniques concerning the disciplines which supply the body of knowledge necessary for architectural education are used to define the problems of architectural design paradoxes and their solutions. In order to develop creative thinking for modifying this body of knowledge, students should be aware of the shifting balances of architectural paradoxes which require a more unified mind. This new teaching and learning strategy proposed for first year design education is considered as a paradigm shift because of the basic pedagogical change in design education in which architectural design, basic design and technical drawing and perspective courses are integrated within an intellectual studio atmosphere.

The intellectual studio atmosphere created during the 2003-2004 academic year at ITU Faculty of Architecture provided both the instructors and the group of 50 students to act as energy receivers to capture the reciprocal relationship between the whole and the parts, in both general and particular issues. Fundamentally this strategy makes these 50 students be able to transform all the abilities and knowledge that they have learned throughout their life-long education.

8.To begin...
Guita Farivarsadri
Pages 79 - 92
Attending to a university program, is one of the most crucial changes that may happen in the life of a young person. In architectural education this transitional period can be even more complicated than many of the other branches. That‟s the reason behind the fact that beginning design education is one of the issues which has been discussed the most amongst the educators involved in the field. There are many different methods of introductory design education existing all over the world. The variation in these approaches mostly depends on what is believed to be the fundamentals in design and architecture. Still many of the basic design courses are planned to teach the fundamentals of visual organization, shared by all fields working in the visual domain within a closed system and apart from real concerns of architectural design. Although learning compositional issues are important for students of architecture, it should be kept in mind that architectural design is a social activity and there are many extrinsic factors which affect the decisions of designer rather than the formal relationships. Thus, it is believed that this approach should be enhanced by providing students with an insight about the complexity of architectural design and factors which influence decisions about forms and the most important of all the existence of human being.

The aim of this paper is to discuss a student-centered method of introductory design education developed in the Faculty of Architecture in Eastern Mediterranean University; which aims at achieving the mentioned goals, its structure, theoretical background and pedagogical considerations.

9.An assessment of urban designer identity in the 21st Century
Hatice Ayataç
Pages 93 - 112
This article aims to contribute to a current debate in the field of Urban Design Studies concerning the identity of the urban designer. It addresses three questions around which much of the debate so far has focused: (i) Who is an urban designer? (ii) Who can be an urban designer? and (iii) How should an urban designer be trained? The first question discusses the identity of the urban designer with regard to four elements of the discipline judged by the author to have been important over the last 50 years, the period over which the subject has been recognized as a separate discipline. They are: (i) the conceptual development of urban design, (ii) the developing theories for urban design and the changing trends in architecture and planning (iii) the professional authority limits of the interdisciplinary process and (iv) the level of development of countries. According to these elements, the limits of responsibility for the urban designer are forwarded. The second question discusses who can be an urban designer in terms of developments within the field of urban design. The final question assesses the training process with reference to the components of training programs offered to the urban design student. It defines the contents of the components of knowledge, skill and value attributable specifically to the urban designer, and forwards a profile of the urban designer for the future. I will argue that urban design studies is not independent of other disciplines, and that the urban designer is anyone who takes decisions which shape the urban environment. The urban designer of the future should be in possession of skills acquired through a specialized training process which offers the knowledge, skills and values necessary for the profession.

THEORY ARTICLES
10.Selling modernity through advertising: Technological progress and its reflections on the early 20th Century American advertising
Seval Dülgeroğlu Yavuz
Pages 113 - 129
This paper contextualizes the relationship between advertising and technology by categorizing the different dimensions of the relationship and by examining the parallels between their histories during the early 20th century America. Investigating the relevant social, cultural, and political conditions surrounding advertising practice with a historical framework will help reveal technological change and its sociocultural implications.

The histories of advertising and technology, examined together, show that their development has mutually reinforced each other. While advertising has helped the advance of technology within the capitalist system by creating markets for the mass produced products, increasing sales, and helping technology become mainstream, technology has assisted in advertising‟s achievement of unlimited cultural authority through technical means and possibilities. The side effects of the relationship between advertising and technology have been social and cultural: the establishment of the values of a capitalist system despite its negative aspects, in addition to the establishment of social roles.

In examining the contextual dimensions of advertising and technology, this paper uses examples, specifically, from the early twentieth century America where the development of advertising and technology gained momentum with the advance of modernity and industrialism. These examples also help in the discussion of the relationship between advertising and the various politics of technology.

11.Urban open spaces with examples & the classification of urban furniture
Seçil Şatır, Elif Korkmaz
Pages 130 - 141
The main function of city furniture is to facilitate the lives of city dwellers in urban space, and provide them with the spaces that give them the comfort of their home. It is important that all urban spaces should be evaluated in participatory and holistic approach. This requirement may already be known by many experts. In this context the mixing together of the shared values of experts, and from the viewpoint of planning, we especially tried to establish the definitions of urban spaces from a comprehensive to narrower scope, and the definitions, locations, and types of city furniture, which can be either adjacent to or separate from the spaces. By dealing with areas with a larger scope, we wanted to emphasize an integral viewpoint that reflects the part and parcel of urban designs and city furniture studies, as well as the content and the details. Such viewpoint commands the necessity to evaluate the perceptions of both the pedestrians and car drivers even in the rearrangement of two sides of a street. Therefore it is quite important to design and apply urban furniture and all urban fixtures according to scientific data. This integral viewpoint will bring results that satisfy the dwellers and complete the urban identity.



 
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