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ITU J Faculty Arch: 17 (2)
Volume: 17  Issue: 2 - July 2020
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1.Cover

Pages I - II

2.Editorial

Page II

THEORY ARTICLES
3.Tourism development and promotion project of El Mechouar Citadel: Issues and limitations
Arezki El Hadj Mimoune, Souria Salem, Malika Kacemi
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2020.46362  Pages 1 - 13
This paper examines the conservation process of the monuments of the Medina of Tlemcen, by their tourism development and their integration into daily life through the assimilation of tourism operations and strategies that have been put in place to support these projects in Tlemcen. The Medina of Tlemcen is one of the exceptional Muslim cities, in terms of space organization, cultural and architectural heritage. It has established itself as a unique city over the centuries. Therefore, the Medina offers the most important historical monuments of Islamic urban planning in Algeria, which can still be seen at the beginning of the 21st century, although the onslaught of modern urban planning and social and economic changes have revealed that these buildings are unsuitable for presentday urban life. El Mechouar Citadel, one of the greatest archaeological and historical monuments in Tlemcen, offers an architectural richness that highlights the outstanding artistic and technical creativity of the different dynasties that succeeded each other in Tlemcen. In the late 1990s, several initiatives were launched to enhance its value and eventually lead to its restoration. However, these projects never succeeded in developing it as a tourist destination and integrating it into the socio-economic life of the local inhabitants and users. Indeed, tourism associated with the historical monuments of the Medina of Tlemcen can be an effective and sustainable alternative to protect and inherit the Algerian cultural heritage, while meeting the economic needs of society.

4.San Michele Church of Genoese Galata (Pera): Historic records and material evidence on its chronology
Naz Ecem Çınaryılmaz, Bilge Ar
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2020.37108  Pages 15 - 29
Today a long lost monument; San Michele Church, which stood once as the cathedral church of the Genoese colony, has a significant place in the history of Galata. It was founded replacing the Byzantine church of Hagia Thekla as Galata transformed into a Genoese settlement in 13th century. Serving as a church, it was still intact when Galata went under Ottoman rule. It has lost its congregation and started to serve as a storage unit as part of state property. It must have survived for a hundred more years under the Ottoman rule until its ownership changed to private property, and eventually it was replaced by a monumental caravanserai for the grand vizier Rüstem Pasha, designed by Architect Sinan in mid 16th century, later named Kurşunlu Han. The first parts of this study focus on the Genoese and Ottoman archival documents referring to the church, to draw an outline of the history of the church, and the site, through Byzantine, Genoese and Ottoman periods. The second part presents the on-site observations and aims to merge these with the data acquired from historic documents questioning any possible traces on the 16th century Ottoman monument that may date back to the church. This study aims to bring to light the above mentioned chronology of the church, portray as much as possible its architecture, its functional transformations, its afterlife under Ottoman rule and physical evidence that might be tracing back to San Michele Church within the body of Kurşunlu Han, which replaced it.

5.GIS-based approach to urban planning, archaeological inventory and geology structure in multilayered cities: The case of Tahtakale in Istanbul
Bedel Emre, Adem Erdem Erbaş
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2020.34735  Pages 31 - 52
This study presents a new planning approach within the context of the integration of archaeological and geological data in the planning process conducted in multi-layered cities. The modern urban physical space in multi-layered cities requires greater integration of natural elements through the use of the new advanced technology. Even though the archaeological cultural heritage/inventory is more recognizable in the urban space, the construction of modern cities increases the developmental pressure on the underground cultural heritage/inventory. This study seeks an alternative method for transferring the archaeological and geological data for the Preservation-Oriented Zoning Practice Plan by using the Geographical Information Systems (GIS), in accordance with the decisions on registering the cultural assets in Turkey. With this approach, the aim is to change spatial planners’ perception of three-dimensional space and to propose a model for integrating archaeological data with the decisions based on the preservation plan. The effect of the elevation details of both the archaeological and geological data discussed on the integrated planning analysis and synthesis stage. The GIS were used for the spatialization of the archaeological data, while for the assessment and transfer of the obtained data by using ArcGIS software and “georeferencing” and “overlay analysis”. In addition, a field study was performed in Historical Peninsula, Tahtakale Region, and in-depth interviews and structured meetings were conducted with thirty-eight people to secure the contribution of different disciplines to the planning.

6.Multiple roles and enhancements of makers in the post-industrial design practices: An inquiry for non-expertise in design
Özgün Dilek, Çiğdem Kaya Pazarbaşı
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2020.68095  Pages 53 - 62
The present paper aims to reflect possible enhancements of makers in design practices through the shared aspects of criticisms in industrial design. Such criticisms included industrialization’s effects on the rationalization of design processes, separation of design tasks, and separation of the industrial design profession from the artisans and craftspeople. Makers’ multiple roles in post-industrial production and their interpretations of industrial products provided the article for understanding their possible interventions in industrial design. The main research question of this article is as follows: What are the possible enhancements of makers that are useful to overcome the problems of industrialization in design? The present study method included a literature review on various critical aspects of industrial design to demonstrate the ones shared by the makers. Selected quotations from the semi-structured interviews conducted with nineteen maker participants accompany the literature review to introduce their varied skills that emerged in the collaborative practices and their perspectives of making for the generation of new meanings in design. In the last section, makers’ shared aspects with the critical views in design, such as their strategies for gaining autonomy in their practices and creating personal meanings, are discussed to overcome the separation of design tasks and rationalization processes in industrial design.

7.Cultural color codes in interior
Demet Arslan Dinçay
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2020.72621  Pages 63 - 72
Most of the literature referring to ‘color in space’, try to define the subject with the basic theory of color and a graphical point of view. It’s also necessary to understand the perceptional and semiotic corresponds of color in a space atmosphere. The characteristic of a space is experienced by the user as an atmosphere that surrounds and encloses him. Color is one of the most effective design tools to create an atmosphere in design since its direct relations with sensations. Moreover, color includes some clues that may define universal, cultural and personal expressive meanings within. Designers and architects use color codes as a tool for corresponding a theme or a message to the user. At this point, it’s imperative that the color-codes (the meaning) match the space in user’s mind. This paper explores the cultural color codes in interior design via two workshops with interior design students which were conducted in two different countries.

8.The investigation of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and particulate matter (PM) quantities in higher education buildings
Filiz Umaroğulları, Dinçer Aydın
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2020.09475  Pages 73 - 82
Indoor air quality is one of the fundamental requirements that must be ensured for users of the buildings to be healthy and productive. As a result of poor indoor air quality, health problems could also arise in users. In educational buildings students spend most of their time in enclosed classrooms. Therefore, it is very important that the indoor air quality meets the health and comfort conditions of the students. In this study, the indoor air quality (IAQ) conditions (CO2 and Particulate Matter/PM) of two higher education buildings in Edirne, Faculty of Architecture and Faculty of Engineering in Trakya University, were investigated. IAQ data were determined by measuring with the devices (Testo 480 for CO2 and TSI Dusttrack 8532 for PM) during the use of the classrooms in the winter months. The results of the measurement were analyzed, then the results were compared with the values given in the standards. The values obtained by CO2 and PM measurements are often found to be exceed the limit values determined by WHO and ASHRAE-62. In some cases, it has been observed that the CO2 value has increased up to 2500 ppm in the classrooms. For PM measurements, values were obtained in the range of 71-151 μg/m3 and where standard deviations varied between 6-34.

9.The application of the regional rank-size rule in Turkey (2000- 2012)
Seda Kundak, Vedia Dökmeci
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2020.10327  Pages 83 - 100
During the last two decades, an extensive literature on the city-size dynamics of urban systems in developed and developing countries has been produced through the application of Zipf ’s law. In this paper, first, the regional distribution of hierarchical city-size groups is investigated in Turkey. Following this, the regional application of the rank-size rule for 2000 and 2012 is examined, and the results are compared with those of the research carried out in 1975. An analysis of the regional dynamics of hierarchical city-size distributions illustrates that the higher out-migration rates from the under-developed regions of the east to the large cities in the west of the country do not allow the full development of city systems, which is important for economic development. In addition, they have caused over urbanization in the west, which has resulted in higher costs of living, traffic congestion and pollution. Therefore, it is suggested that a more balanced distribution of investments at the country level is required to provide a more balanced distribution of economic development and urbanization.

10.Impact of high speed railway systems on inter-regional trips and accessibility in Turkey
Ahmet Baş, Mehmet Ali Yüzer
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2020.17136  Pages 101 - 111
High-speed trains are faster, safer, more comfortable than road transport for trips of 250–1000 kilometers. Accordingly, a significant increase has been observed in inter-city railway transport following the construction of high-speed railway (HSR) connections. The present study shows the effects of HSR on accessibility and potential savings in time when compared to other transportation modes. The time saved by HSR systems has been shown to change purpose trip. The level of accessibility provided by the HSR between Konya–Ankara–Istanbul link is compared with the accessibility of other travel modes through an investigation of the weighted average travel times and an analysis of costs. Furthermore, data gathered from a field study carried out among users of the Konya-Ankara HSR link is used to identify the distribution of travel choices among different transportation modes, based on such social and economic indicators as income, car ownership and employment status. It is found that HSR service increases accessibility between cities, and changes travel demands and purpose, in favor of railways, and that economic factors such as income and car ownership are important in the use of HSR services. Finally, this research identifies social and cultural activities as a new reason for travel, in which users diversify their travel destinations because of the time savings offered by HSR systems.

11.Sustainable street architecture and its effects on human comfort conditions: Yazd, Iran
Seyhan Yardımlı, Derya Güleç Özer, Amin Shahriary
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2020.70188  Pages 113 - 122
Sustainable development requires continual effort to create solutions for energy efficiency and air conditioning. In this study, we focused on the hot-arid city of Yazd in Iran as an eco-model city in terms of its architectural and design compatibility with the environment. We directed our focus to the orientation of the streets according to the sun and wind. Yazd was studied in terms of features at the urban scale and establishment of sustainability criteria. With its streets providing a natural air conditioning system and dense urban texture, Yazd implemented natural urban solutions allowing streets to reflect wind to increase air circulation and provide protection against the effects of the sun. In order to understand the characteristics of these streets, a case study is conducted in Lab-e Khandagh, Yazd historic district. In this site survey, thermal and humidity measurements were recorded at four points in the Historic City of Yazd, which are located on either Sabats, open streets or squares. The site study is conducted on 3 days apart in a week at summer, five different times in a day. The data is collected with a HTC 2 (Arcone, Made in PRC) device, 120 cm. above ground. The data obtained are evaluated and compared, and showed us traditional urban features provide a cooling effect notably in summer time. Yazd, with its rare urban design features that provide solutions intended to create comfortable, healthy, and sustainable human settlements, is a model in terms of identifying architectural design standards for sustainability.

12.Measuring the environmental performance of urban regeneration projects using AHP methodology
Emre Ilıcalı, Fatma Heyecan Giritli
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2020.24445  Pages 123 - 142
As the world continues to urbanize, integrated policies to improve the lives of both urban and rural dwellers are needed. It could be claimed that the best way to address such problems in major cities is through sustainable urban regeneration where economical, ecological and social impacts of urbanization are examined and practiced thoroughly. In the literature review, the number of publications and identified key performance indicators are found as insufficient. Also, the key performance indicators identified in publications are insufficient for projectspecific performance measurement. Most of them do not include validation and verification of the models. In this study, specific focus is on the environmental performance dimension of sustainable project performance. Thus, this study aims to provide a source for these problems and to systematically measure the environmental performance of urban regeneration projects. It also provides the formulation of the environmental performance measurement model and defines key performance indicators. The data obtained from the literature review and field studies. The proposed AHP model incorporates 9 performance criteria, and 55 related KPIs. After determining the hierarchical structure of KPIs, they are rated using a 7-point Likert scale questionnaire to identify their priority. Next, AHP process have been conducted by participation of 25 experts. Finally, the environmental performance measurement model for urban regeneration projects has been developed. Study results indicate that “Energy” criteria has the highest priority level for determining the environmental performance of urban transformation projects. Consecutively, “Water” criteria comes after followed by “Land Use” and “Ecology”.

13.Occupant trajectory analysis for evaluating spatial layouts
Lâle Başarır, Mustafa Emre İlal
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2020.79069  Pages 143 - 157
Comparing architectural designs as well as measuring their level of success is a challenging task. Tracking of occupant movements provides objective data facilitating the development of new metrics for evaluating spatial layouts. This paper starts by outlining an overall methodology for Spatial Layout Evaluation based on occupant movements. Then, a platform for acquisition and interpretation of objective data to better understand how space is utilized by occupants is introduced. This platform is the Trajectory Data Processing Framework (TDPF). It supports investigating correlations between occupant movements and problems associated with spatial layouts. Finally, as a proof-of-concept implementation of this framework, a set of tools for analysis of occupant interaction with layouts, called Occupant Layout Interaction Analysis (OLIA), is presented.

14.Karşıyaka Coastal Renovation Project: A process-based approach to urban design
Ebru Bingöl
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2020.03521  Pages 159 - 170
As the mobility and the fluidity in the society have increased and the economic activities have been globalized for the last few decades, the contemporary city has emerged as a rapidly changing dynamic phenomenon. Similar to the landscape, the city is an evolving, complex and layered system built as a result of natural and cultural processes. In this current conjuncture, a static image of the urban system like figure-ground maps sounds archaic. Therefore, imagining the city as a landscape not only helps to reformulate the conceptual relationships between landscape, architecture and the city but also provides new insights into how to organize the urban space. This paper invites Landscape Architecture Theory to introduce dynamic systems into urban practices that could contribute to the analysis and understanding of the contemporary city. Since the 1960s, landscape architecture theory investigates spatial organization of dynamic systems through the ecological models as a process-based design approach. Karşıyaka Urban Coastal Renovation Project (2012) in Izmir, discussed in this paper, is an urban design project produced for renovation of Karşıyaka coastal area. The project approached the city as a landscape where natural and social self-organizing processes are expected to transform the site. Therefore, the focus of the project was individuals’ interaction with the environment at the social level and self-organizing nonhuman factors as a living system as the natural phenomena. Rather than searching a fixed and rigid spatial frame, the project investigated how self-organizing systems generate a process based design approach to urban planning.

15.Script analysis: An approach to object-based exhibition
Meltem Maralcan Gülmen, Gülname Turan
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2020.68094  Pages 171 - 184
More modern museum approaches to exhibition are based on a narrative interpretation of their collections rather than simple presentation to the audience. In the context of this narrative approach, this study proposes script analysis as a new method, based in the design history field, for the research phase of exhibitions— in particular for those that are more object-oriented. Script analysis is a research method based on the principle of writing and rewriting the scenarios of objects with a continuous flow between the spheres of production, consumption, and mediation. This study examines, enhances, and presents script analysis as a research kit to be fit into the research phase of exhibitions. It also examines as a case study the application of this method in the research phase of an exhibition of a group of objects that took place in an art gallery and analyzes the efficiency of the research kit developed for script analysis. It concludes that script analysis is not only qualified to guide the research process of an exhibition, but also capable of producing diversified data according to the different perspectives of its curators.

16.GAN as a generative architectural plan layout tool: A case study for training DCGAN with Palladian Plans and evaluation of DCGAN outputs
Can Uzun, Meryem Birgül Çolakoğlu, Arda Inceoğlu
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2020.54037  Pages 185 - 198
This study aims to produce Andrea Palladio’s architectural plan schemes autonomously with generative adversarial networks(GAN), and to evaluate the plan drawing productions of GAN as a generative plan layout tool. GAN is a class of deep neural nets which is a generative model. In deep learning models, repetitive processes can be automated. Architectural drawing is a repetitive process in the act of architecture and plan drawing process can be made automated. For the automation of plan production system we used deep convolutional generative adversarial network (DCGAN) which is a subset of GAN models. And we evaluated the outputs of the DCGAN Palladian Plan scheme productions. Results show that not geometric similarities (shapes), but probabilistic models are at the centre of the generative system of GAN. For this reason, it should be kept in mind that while GAN algorithms are used as a generative system, they will produce statistically close visual models rather than geometrically close models. Nonetheless, GAN can generate both statistically and geometrically close models to the dataset. In first section we introduced a brief description about the place of the drawing in architecture field and future foresight of architecture drawings. In the second section, we gave detailed information about the literature on autonomous plan drawing systems. In the following sections, we explained the methodology of this study and the process of creating the plan drawing dataset, the algorithm training procedure, at the end we evaluated the generated plan schemes with rapid scene categorization and Frechet inception score.

17.An assessment method for a designerly way of computational thinking
Elif Belkıs Öksüz, Gülen Çağdaş
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2020.86729  Pages 199 - 208
The article presents an assessment method for the designers’ use of abstraction skills in the process of CT. Starting with questioning how abstraction partakes in design and computer sciences, the study focuses on the impacts of making conceptual and procedural abstractions in CT. For that, it offers an assessment method to explore whether a visual thinker’s ability to make abstractions has any impact on their process of visual computing. As a concept, CT is considered as a mental activity for formulating a problem to admit a computational solution by combining the intelligence of humans and machines. It is addressed as a collection of mental tools and concepts that are borrowed from computer sciences. Within this regard, architecture is one of the fields that require careful consideration of these cognitive aspects towards CT. Although both computer and design sciences value abstraction in similar ways, its introduction to the design field slightly differs from its introduction to computer sciences. Considering the differences in their conceptual background and reflective practices, it can be said that the abstraction of a visual thinker may not always constitute the way that CT requires. Based on a two-stage experiment in a CAD modeling framework, the developed methodology revealed that the designers’ abilities to make abstractions at a procedural level partake a significant role in their visual computing. While the first experiment is conducted with 3 sophomore architecture students, the second was conducted with the participation of 3 non-designers along with the same architecture students.

18.Contributors

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