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ITU J Faculty Arch: 17 (1)
Volume: 17  Issue: 1 - March 2020
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3.Evaluating visitors’ perceptions of squares: Evidence from Istanbul
Hatice Ayataç, Enver Cenan İnce, Fatma Ayçim Türer Başkaya, Eren Kürkçüoğlu, Özge Çelik, Sinem Becerik Altındiş
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.98216  Pages 1 - 11
The urban square has been a prominent research topic in the literature of public space for decades, with related research taking it into account mainly as a physical, social, and economic space. However, a very limited number of empirical studies take into account the spatial perception of visitors to squares. The main aim of this study is to fill this gap by determining the factors prominent in shaping visitors’ perception of the attractiveness of urban squares. For this purpose, fourteen urban squares were selected as cases, and 644 randomly selected visitors of these squares were surveyed. Following this comprehensive survey, a binary probit model was used to model the visitors’ binary perceptions of the attractiveness of the related squares. A correlative approach between such a comprehensive study and an econometric model would be novel in the case of Istanbul.

4.Local data: A new approach to data in architecture
Faruk Can Ünal, Yüksel Demir
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.45220  Pages 13 - 23
Data, information and knowledge terms are often used interchangeably. The intention of this paper is to provide a better understanding to data, information and knowledge relation with a relative perspective and to explain the usage of the term data in scientific studies. In addition to that, it is aimed to develop a classification of data for architecture. When the origin of the data is investigated, it shows natural or cultural references. This relation can be used at fundamental classification of data as natural or cultural. Besides, data is inherently associated with place in architecture. In the determination of the parameters related to the place, architectural studies, site planning studies, and legal regulations in architecture and planning are evaluated to construct a data framework. Local data framework has been developed to classify data that are used in architectural design. For the use of architectural site survey, local data provides a systematic classification in relation to location. The architect can easily access the data associated with the place. This approach supports the architect in design by using the local data. This study revisits data with a new approach as local data for use in architecture.

5.The intangible characteristics of the two indigenous traditional dwellings in West Kalimantan
Zairin Zain, Uray Fery Andi
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.97720  Pages 25 - 36
A house has an important role in our lives. It is built to meet the physical and spiritual needs of the occupants. It is also a part of the physical culture, which in the traditional context, is a form of expression and closely linked with the personality of the community. All parts or features of a house possess valuable norms held by the community, and applied in the physical appearance of the house. In the traditional sense, the layout of and functions of the rooms in a house reflect the values, principles, and norms that are held by a family and prevail in their community. The influences of the religious concepts, their beliefs, and the community culture are expressed in the physical, architectural form of their dwellings. The belief is the benchmark to distinguish the understanding of the house elements on these two types of architecture. The rules adhered by the Malays are based on the Quran and Al-Hadith. These sources of authority regulate the two main aspects of Malay lives, i.e. human relationship with God and human relationship with the others. The positive rules to the life of the Dayaks are the customary law, customs, and traditional beliefs.

6.Comparative analysis of three innovative housing models in Copenhagen for social mix
Nezih Burak Bican
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.04875  Pages 37 - 53
Copenhagen has been attracting residents both from abroad and other regions of Denmark, embracing a comprehensive development plan following an economic boom since the 1990s. Local decision-makers have been striving to transform the housing stock of the city in line with the evolving demographics of the city and consequent new demands of the urban society. At the same time, people are seeking cheaper and flexible alternatives of living; thus, social housing (almen bolig) emerges as an affordable option with reasonable qualities for Copenhagen residents. This study uses a comparative analysis to evaluate spatial approaches of three innovative social housing models developed by partnerships of some nonprofit housing associations with Copenhagen municipality in 2015. Each model has a distinct motto; Generationernes Byhus (GBYH) builds up neighbourhood across generations; Boliger for Alle (BOFA) provides opportunity of transition across ownership types; and Almene Storbyboliger (ASBB) creates flexible/plastic system addressing demographical structure under change. Methodologically, the research is based on interviews with key stakeholders and in-depth analysis of visual and written documents. It provides a comparative analysis of the models, concentrating particularly on dwelling design approaches which address social mix and diversity. The paper concludes that although the social housing market is strictly controlled for socio-economic reasons, it still has the potential to support the evolution of the urban demography of Danish society thanks to embracement of innovative perspectives both by governmental authorities and forerunning housing associations.

7.Istanbul Technical University Art Collection Inventory: Analysis and recommendations for its development
Canan Atlığ, Aslıhan Erkmen
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.52207  Pages 55 - 69
Over the years, several artworks have been compiled at various campuses of Istanbul Technical University (ITU) forming a modest collection. These artworks, however, have never been identified, documented, catalogued, and/or studied in an art historical manner. The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze the artworks in the ITU Art Collection Inventory for the first time and provide suggestions for its development. Initially, all campuses and faculties/facilities of ITU were visited and the artworks found in each location were recorded based on the guidelines set by the International Council of Museums (ICOM). The findings have been categorized and presented according to different campuses of ITU as well as the types of artworks, which include forty-five paintings, nineteen sculptures, four engravings, one mural, and one panel, a total of seventy works. Recommendations have been developed based on the content of the inventory in accordance with ITU’s mission, vision, and history. The relationship between science, technology, and art has been the main focus of the general suggestions, which have been made for ITU to build a strong relationship with artists and academics in the campus as well as with ITU’s Rectorate Art Gallery to innovate new forms of artworks in the contemporary art field. It should be noted that most of the artwork were tributes to prominent Turkish scientists and scholars. The relationship between art and science observed in most of the artworks is suggested to become the binding factor for the cohesiveness of the ITU Art Collection.

8.A model for the development of a building material information system
Elçin Taş, Pınar Irlayıcı Çakmak
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.58815  Pages 71 - 83
This paper aims to propose a model that enables building material information sharing through a web-based environment by providing access to any sort of upto- date and accurate building material information on any phase of the building production process. The proposed model provides a mechanism for disseminating classified building material information for decision makers to search for building materials based on the building production phases and effective criteria. Firstly, a field survey was conducted among the main decision makers on building product selection. The survey findings were discussed with a focus group to explore the meanings of survey results at a deeper level and to perform the process analysis for the model development. Then, a process analysis was performed by adopting IDEF-0 technique, to describe the steps and decisions involved in the flow of the building material selection. Accordingly, a model was proposed by coding it with C# language and necessary interfaces were created and tested to show how the system performs. The model enables decision makers to access necessary information in the shortest time and in accordance with the phases of the building production process. With the usage of the model, decision makers can gain time and cost savings by accessing different sort of building material information with less effort and time. The development of the model is an important step for the construction industry in terms of the acquisition of up-to-date and accurate building material information by collecting and distributing all building material information from a single source.

9.Occupants creating their own spaces without thinking as a real designer: A revolt and a routine
Elif Merve Alpak
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.26539  Pages 85 - 94
Urban design literature refers to the spatial characteristics of places that are transformed into behavioral patterns through regular use in an open space and how they are used. However, they do not mention the characteristics of the spaces which are transformed into places of short-term interaction with extraordinary and innovative uses, their intended use and the relationship between the people. This study aims to reveal the differences between the regular uses of urban open spaces and the unusual and innovative (insinuate) uses and the spatial characteristics and behavioral characteristics of the places created by the users. Half-participant behavior was observed in the study. In order to determine the behaviors at the observation points, the observations were designed as 15 minutes observation and 10 minutes break for 3 days (75 minutes). While the physical properties of the spaces chosen for behavioral patterns and unusual uses were similar, it was found that they differed in terms of spatial definitions, duration of use of space and relationships between people. The study of the disciplines that are interested in urban design only in open spaces, and the inability to include the effects of this on human behaviors and the infiltration into the space cause the emergence of gaps in such studies. With this study, it was concluded that urban open spaces, where both infiltration and behavior patterns were made together, were more effective in exchanging ideas and making joint activities.

10.A research on straw bale and traditional external wall systems: Energy and cost-efficiency analysis
Begüm Diker, Fatih Yazıcıoğlu
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.65882  Pages 95 - 103
Rapid population growth and increased energy consumption along with urbanization led to many problems such as climate change and global warming. Sustainable building design and construction has become an essential concept. New construction technologies and the use of sustainable materials are quite significant in terms of energy efficiency in order to improve building envelope.
In the first step of the study, three of the most preferred external wall systems in low-rise buildings in Turkey construction industry have been selected and examined in detail. In the following step, timber-framed (infill) and load-bearing straw bale wall systems that have an ancient history and known as a traditional construction system have been selected in order to make a comparative analysis. In the evaluation part, five different wall systems are compared to each other in terms of their physical and thermal properties (density, weight, U and R values), embodied carbon/energy amounts and costs. The results are summarized in tables and figures. Straw bale construction is preferred in most continents like Europe, Asia, America because of its easy applicability, sustainability, good thermal insulation value, locality, economically applicable. However, these kinds of applications are very limited in Turkey due to the lack of knowledge about construction techniques. Besides, there has been no regulation or standards in Turkey about straw bale construction yet. With this research, it is aimed to emphasize the importance of straw bale construction in terms of energy efficiency and to discuss the applicability of straw bale buildings for Turkey.

11.The role of the architect in the formulation of urban design
Ervin Garip
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.34711  Pages 105 - 114
Urban design can be defined simply as “shaping spaces for people”, in other words, “the embodiment of physical and social environment, consciously or intuitively”. This article aims to read and discuss the active role of the architect in shaping the cities through different geographic and political applications and how this role is affected by the political, social and temporal conditions of the cities. Cities emerge “as a result of the decisions chain.” Even though modern cities are mostly created intuitively, this intuitiveness is not coincidental, the decisions made play a role in this formation. In order to understand the role of the architect in this formulation and its relations with other active roles, three different specific examples are examined and discussed as three different scenarios. As we can read through these examples, the architect has taken part in different activities in urban planning in different periods of time, and political authority and sociological conditions affected the architect’s position. In certain periods, the architect took place between the investor and the municipality as in the case of New York City, in some periods had the opportunity to shape the urban environment individually and sometimes as it is in the socialist periods, shaped the cities by relatively becoming a part of the political authority.

12.Tracing the hidden dimension of line in architectural representation
Cağın Tanrıverdi Çetin, Yurdanur Dülgeroğlu Yüksel
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2020.78800  Pages 115 - 128
This research instrumentalizes the deliberation on drawing in architectural representation, in order to criticize the way of seeing that is dominated by recent media technologies and power relations. This paper intends to search how the drawing, in particular line-making, is affected in this environment, and how to respond to it via alternative, manipulative, and creative tactics of vision considering drawing as a critical act. The dependency of line on visuality is criticized by alternative drawing practices of contemporary line-makers. Consequently, imaginative, creative and layered qualities of design thinking, representation and production can be uncovered. Originality in architecture lies in its virtual, hidden, unseen and unnoticed properties. Methodology selected is nourished by an argumentative method that is based on a system theory approach. A dialectical discussion is conducted utilizing some concepts such as visual-nonvisual, physical- virtual, material-immaterial, and temporal-permanent. Following a qualitative approach, unbinding the concept of line changing on a similar axis with digital mediums and tools, the conceptualization process of drawing from a historical point of view, questioning the new concepts that it relates to, and discussing the interaction of changes in line tools and representations constitute the path of this research. As a consequence, it may be proposed that prioritizing the unseen, minor or secondary characteristics of design issues and their dynamic relationships may reveal an alternative line-making practice.

13.Santralistanbul Campus, Bilgi University: A transformation of an industrial site to a liveable campus
Haniye Razavivand Fard
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2020.04880  Pages 129 - 143
This paper focuses on the concepts of adaptive-reuse and campus urban space. Through a case study, it explores universities’ role in the transformation of urban areas (macro-scale) and investigates the university campus as a context for spatial and social relations (micro-scale). It analyzes the Santralistanbul Campus of Bilgi University, located in the historic Peninsula in Istanbul, Turkey, as a successful example of a converted run-down industrial site to a vibrant university campus. In one hand, it studies the campus urban location, spatial organization, and design principles. On the other hand, it explores the physical features of campus which are influential in space-use patterns. The study methodology is twofold. Firstly, the historical background, existing documents, university website, and annual reports have been examined. Then, spatial analysis has followed by acquiring information from campus designers, analyzing masterplans, and Google Earth maps and OpenStreetMaps. Secondly, considering the literature, the main parameters of a good campus space have been studied. Doing so, a qualitative approach - in-situ observation, informal interviews, and questionnaire survey - have been conducted. This study highlights that there is a relationship between campus design principles and space-use patterns. It emphasizes that application of the adaptive re-use strategy by educational institutions can contribute to acquiring available urban campus land, integrating the academic body into society, transforming the deteriorated areas, preserving an industrial heritages, and serving the university mission which ultimately generates vitality and sociospatial sustainability. The converted Santralistanbul campus can be used as a good example in designing other campus conversion projects.

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