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ITU J Faculty Arch: 16 (2)
Volume: 16  Issue: 2 - 2019
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Page III

3.Re-evaluating modernism through a spatial collection: İstanbul complex of retail shops and collaboration of art and architecture
Ezgi Yavuz
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.98852  Pages 1 - 17
The increasing dialogue between the arts and architecture in the period of post-World War Two emerged as a significant issue in the international arena in both architectural discourse and practice, and Turkey was not excluded from this phenomenon at the time. The article rethinks contemporary discussions and the materialized works in Turkey with reference to the wider international frame of the architectural context. Formalized around the concept of ‘situated modernism’ and the publicness of architecture, the example of the Complex of Retail Shops is examined. This subject is questioned with particular focus on the ambivalence between the international and the local in postwar architecture, and the efforts to establish a connection with the public. The novel perspective that the article suggests is a re-reading of the complex together with the questioning process of the international modern and the uneven relationship between the arts and architecture. The article aims to unearth the implicit meaning and the constructive role of this uneven relationship, specially the collaboration efforts, under the circumstances of the period.

4.The boundaries of streets across time, in Saharan space
Soraya Kadri, Malika Kacemi, Ratiba Wided BIARA
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.29053  Pages 19 - 23
The way to draw a clear limits, the art of operating and to foil the passages, reports of the cultural expression mode which reflects the architecture of Saharan oasis: holder of the identity signs equally to traditional knowledge, including the famous frontiers of the public space. “If the oasien lived a rational life insofar as he understood the components: his agriculture, his tools, his clothes”, it is not the same matter for today. From the oasis to the city, in this urbanized space, the extent of the offset between the image that offers the former spatial organisation (which reflects the daily real image of those we call Saharans), as well as the current growth theatre (which imports its models from the occidental countries, far to accommodate with the Saharan context), it is quite detectable. These spatial dynamics witnesses pertinent transmutations which operates on homes settlements in the Sahara, but also on public spaces including roads, more on the formal plan then the intrinsic practices. Consequently, it is necessary today to wonder about the demarcation lines of roads we have inherited. Forthwith, these frontiers and limits rarely follows a linear traces to allow to discern two extended. At first glance, they alter, corrupt, and tangle giving birth to metaphors. Whence the difficulty to construct, in a clearer way the streets spaces thus define them. This study is descriptive and explanatory of the limits symptoms to the level of the traditional inhabited space in the Sahara by a diachronic reading.

5.Mega sporting events and their impact on the built environment: Lessons learned from the past
Simona Azzali
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.12499  Pages 25 - 37
In recent decades, mega sports events, like the Olympics or FIFA World Cups, have been more and more used as urban policy tools to renew and transform entire neighbourhoods of cities. Many scholars have investigated contemporary case studies; however, only a little attention has been given to historical precedents and the way they were leveraged as successful tools of experimentation to develop and renew strategic areas of cities. This research reviewed selected past examples from the Western and the Eastern world and derived four best practices for contemporary hosting cities and event governing bodies. Results show that practices as the use of temporary facilities, the leverage of events for experimenting new urban templates and patterns, the attention to local needs and the use of local resources, the full integration of sports venues within the surrounding areas and the awareness of the interrelation between political power and events can lead to beneficial legacies.

6.Bridging and bonding social capital in gentrifying neighborhoods: “Yeldeğirmeni district in Istanbul”
Alp Arısoy, Nurbin Paker
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.67944  Pages 39 - 54
This paper aims to evaluate spatial reflections of social relations and crosscultural interactions in social-mixed neighborhoods from a social capital aspect. While social diversity has been praised as a possible tool for community development by many, more recent gentrification literature also questions whether different social groups actually interact with each other or not in socialmixed neighborhood settings. The research presented aims to contribute to this debate by analyzing the social ties and neighborly interactions of a small creative community in Yeldegirmeni; one of the gentrifying inner-city districts of Istanbul. Based on social network mapping and face to face interviews, the bonding social capital, which is constituted by close-knit homophilous relations within this group and bridging social capital, which is constituted by interclass heterophilous relations has been put under scope. Creating interaction opportunities between social groups is often suggested as a possible way to cope with devastating negative effects of gentrification. Therefore a better understanding of how more fluid midincome classes interact with their surrounding local environment in gentrifying neighborhoods is important, as such social mixing can sometimes be unavoidable.

7.The spatial strategies and its mechanism of home-based enterprise in Kampong Cikini, Jakarta
Joko Adianto, Rossa Turpuk Gabe
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.65668  Pages 55 - 68
Home-based enterprise (HBE) is one of the plausible solutions for slum alleviation through income generating activities. This research aims to investigate the determinants of HBEs particularly the role of social life in slum settlement, followed by its implications to the spatial strategies. The research methodology is conducted with questionnaire, interviews and detailed observations in Kampong Cikini as one of the notable slum settlements in Central Jakarta. The findings revealed a profound comprehension of HBE that inseparable from socio-economy activities in the neighborhood. It confirms the positive and negative implications to neighborhood and the participation of surrounding neighbors in determining the type of commodity, public space usage and the practice of spatial strategies.

8.An investigation of the conservation problems of volcanic tuffs used in the facades of Dolmabahçe Palace
Seden Acun Özgünler, Elmira Gür
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.33602  Pages 69 - 80
Historical structures resemble to historical documents that reflect the sociocultural structures of the period which they were built in. It is our responsibility as a nation to protect these immovable documents and transfer them to future generations in a healthy manner. It is necessary to help not only experts but also users raise awareness on how to preserve these historical pieces. It is still unclear that how these buildings, built in the past periods of time when today’s construction technology was not available and materials and techniques were very limited, can be still durable and in a perfect condition. Both architectural forms, materials and techniques are admirable. In order to protect these structures of cultural heritage and transfer them to future generations properly, necessary adjustment should be made in accordance with conservation principles. Protecting and repairing historic structures requires interdisciplinary collective work. Among historical works, the selection of original materials and construction techniques for the selection of the most appropriate protection and reparation interventions are among the priorities. The reparations the building has gone through can also be understood by examining the materials having been used during these procedures. In this article, the stones used in the facades of the Dolmabahçe Palace and the environmental factors surrounding the palace are investigated. In particular, the protection problems of the volcanic tuff stones are investigated. And by the experimental studies, conservation proposals were obtained. This article is thought to be helpful for future facade preservation work.

9.Mapping theory: Production of knowledge in theory of architecture in Turkey
Hakan Anay, Yiğit Acar, Ülkü Özten, Meltem Özten Anay
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.97059  Pages 81 - 90
The study presents a ‘mapping’ of the production of knowledge in the field of theory of architecture in Turkey in the last two decades. The study is based on 307 dissertations produced in Turkey between 1995-2015. Through text mining and unstructured data analysis methods, the research suggests a taxonomy of research in the field. Conceptualizing its method as ‘cartography of knowledge’ the study aims to document the current state of PhD. research in theory of architecture in Turkish context and provide insights about research trajectories in the field.

10.Towards a critical delineation of waterfront: Aerial photographs as evidence and record in Istanbul
Gökçen Erkılıç, İpek Akpınar
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.36097  Pages 91 - 103
This paper develops a conceptual agenda and a critical cartographic methodology using aerial photographs to monitor the shaping of waterfront as a geography in Istanbul by humans. Starting from the first aerial photographs of Istanbul until present, the gaze of the vertical dimension in geographical space holds divergent evidences of spatial transformation captured in aerial views. From construction sites to building of coastal roads, demolishing of port scapes and technological rifts of logistic flows, to large infills in longshore space; events and moments of spatial deformation of coastal space become visible and evident through aerial photography. Aerial gaze, when considered within an archeology of a developing military reconnaissance technology, is presented as an ironic tool to shed light to evidences and historical record of spatial transformation within an act of witnessing. Viewing coastal unfixity through aerial photographs are argued here to provide two different temporalities: longue and court dureé which operate in the eventual and geological time. As these photographs unveil, the material - geological body of the waterfront itself becomes the bearer of historical records of human and nonhuman relations that shape the coastal geography. The ground beneath is unfixed as it is pulled into a cartographic questioning tool of “critical delineation” of Istanbul’s waterfront. In the end, the waterfront is re-conceptualized and monitored as a dynamic geography. With this gaze, this paper suggests a debunking of oppositions of land and sea space to reframe the waterfront as an urban edge in the process of urbanization.

11.Validating a direction adopted in a basic design studio based on the principles of constructivism
Arulmalar Ramaraj, Jothilakshmy Nagammal
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.43760  Pages 105 - 123
With an intention to adopt principles of ‘constructivist pedagogy’ integrated with an objective to foster thinking skills, ‘process oriented outcomes’ were adopted in a basic design studio during the session June – November 2016 at the Department of Architecture, Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology, India. It was about the framing of informal activities prior to design task was to encourage the novices to unravel the spirit of the design problem intangibly. The students documented the creative processes and outcomes associated with all the tasks. We discussed, gave inputs, monitored and examined both the processes and the outcomes regularly. At the end of the semester, outcomes along with the processes were evaluated by four experts. Even though the evaluation by us as well as the jury members displayed a strong correlation, the evaluation process was intuitive. With an intention to gather diverse opinions from staff members, the processes and outcomes of the tasks were presented at a faculty development programme in November 2016. At the training programme, pre and post tests were conducted to analyze the knowledge constructed by the participants. Open ended collective tasks based on cubism paintings were planned and conducted. The ideas, concepts, processes and outcomes evolved by the teachers were documented. The findings obtained through the qualitative and quantitative analysis adopting an exploratory confirmatory method. The findings post that the direction adopted in the basic design to be an approach to incorporate principles of constructivism.

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