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ITU J Faculty Arch: 15 (3)
Volume: 15  Issue: 3 - November 2018
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COVER
1.Cover

Pages I - II

EDITORIAL
2.Editorial
Y. Çağatay Seçkin
Page III

THEORY ARTICLES
3.Scraping the layers: Tahsin Öz and his stylistic restorations in Topkapı Palace Museum
Burcu Selcen Coşkun
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.41033  Pages 1 - 12
State-led heritage conservation was first experienced in Tanzimat Period in Ottoman Empire. State continued being the major custodian of cultural heritage throughout the 1950s. The general approach towards conservation of these early years was the maintenance of symbolic buildings that had been regarded as monuments. Yet, we can speak of a selective ideal of determining which monument to conserve and which period to exhibit.
Starting his career as the chief accountant and later the deputy director of the Museum of Antiquities, Tahsin Öz was among the people who dominated the field of heritage preservation in the early Republican years. He acted throughout his life as an influential figure in decision making processes of heritage conservation. As one of the most important roles in his career, Öz was appointed as the director of Topkapı Palace Museum, which became a museum in 1924 with the approval of the young parliament. Although much neglected and in need of urgent repair, the buildings of the palace were still witnesses of the 19th century Ottoman taste. Until 1953, he was responsible and in charge of some rather ambitious restorations, which favored to erase the traces of one period and return back to a specific one.
This paper aims to introduce the controversial approaches of Öz in Topkapi Palace Museum with an overview of what he realized and wrote, and focus simultaneously on the atmosphere of preservation in Turkey until 1950s with voices of intellectuals and professionals supporting or disagreeing his decisions.

4.Different goals, different criteria: Perspectives of jury members in industrial design competitions in Turkey
İrem Dilek, Pınar Kaygan
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.45477  Pages 13 - 27
In the last decade, popularity of industrial design competitions organized in Turkey has increased significantly. The increase in their number, and the educational scholarships offered to the winner design students and young designers as a prize, led industrial design competitions to become prominent among design promotion activities in Turkey. Industrial design competitions also carry importance in terms of bringing professionals from different fields of expertise together in their evaluation juries. Considering the increased importance of industrial design competitions, this article explores the perspectives of jury members from various fields of expertise in jury evaluations of industrial design competitions in Turkey. The fieldwork consists of observations in the evaluation juries of five design competitions and interviews with 15 jury members from different fields of expertise. Based on the findings obtained from the fieldwork, the study shows that the relationship between jury members are patterned by their different, in some situations even conflicting, perspectives on both the goals to be achieved with these competitions, and the priorities that shape their evaluation criteria.

5.Piranesi’s arguments in the Carceri
Fatma İpek Ek
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.21347  Pages 29 - 39
Giovanni Battista Piranesi (1720-1778) is an important Italian architect with his seminal theses in the debates on the ‘origins of architecture’ and ‘aesthetics’. He is numbered foremost among the founders of modern archaeology. But Piranesi was misinterpreted both in his day and posthumously. One of the most important vectors of approach yielding misinterpretation of Piranesi derived from the phenomenon comprising the early nineteenth-century Romanticist reception of Piranesi’s character and work. Therefore, the present study firstly demonstrates that such observations derive not from an investigation of the work itself, nor from an appraisal of the historical context, but owe to the long-standing view in western culture that identifies the creator’s ethos with the work and interprets the work so as to cohere with that pre-constructed ethos. Thus the paper aims at offering a new perspective to be adopted while examining Piranesi’s works. This perspective lies within the very scope of understanding the reasons of the misinterpretations, the post-Romanticist perception of the ‘artist’, and Piranesi’s main arguments on the aesthetics, origins of architecture, and law.

6.Review: In the complex epoch is sustainability “out” resilience “in”?
Zeynep Deniz Yaman Galantini, Azime Tezer
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.77598  Pages 41 - 59
The scientific literature since 2000s shows that sustainability definitions have been evolving by fascinating new notions. The main concern of sustainability which is to preserve resources from generation to generation is always an indispensable approach for systems stability, however it has to be questioned if sustainability can still maintain stability when there comes an unexpected condition. In this case, often, the concept is coupled with resilience. Resilience stresses a new way of thinking by providing the uncertainty and dynamism based perspective and guiding in terms of orientation in the face of uncertainties. Even if there is an increasing attention in literature to address the “sustainability-resilience relation”, there is not a clear unique scheme about how to bind two concepts. Based on this realization, this paper aims to address what has to be clarified to draw attention to the link between resilience and sustainability through in-depth literature review, focusing on the basic attributes of sustainability which have to be continuously updated in this complex unpredictable epoch and the basic attributes of resilience which provides this required upgrade. It can be summarized that the paper fundamentally; 1. emphasizes the fact that sustainability has to be updated and upgraded considering uncertainty based challenges; 2. points out that the main argument between sustainability and resilience is the passage from stability to dynamism; 3. highlights the connection between resilience and sustainability through the relation between the principal attributes of two concepts; 4. underlines that resilience helps to rearrange the basic principles of sustainability.

7.Territorial marketing: A tool for developing the attractiveness of territories
Rehailia Hassib, Saadi Ibtissem
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.14622  Pages 61 - 69
In the context of economic globalization, cities and urban territories are at the heart of the challenges of strategies to position themselves in the economic competition and enhance their attractiveness. The territory is perceived as a factor of administrative and territorial innovation. Territorial development policies were strongly convinced that a strong attractiveness of a territory is considered as proof of success, thus it was necessary to attract sources of wealth and job offers, to make people want to come and to stay. How to be attractive? Cities had to put in place real strategies to differentiate themselves and continue to attract visitors. Among these strategies is territorial marketing. Its implementation transforms the ways in which the territories implement their attractiveness policies with a number of actions in the short and medium term to convince the actors and targets of the attractiveness of this territory to invest or reinvest in it. The ability to bring in and / or retain men and business appears now to be a key issue in local development strategies. The main purpose of this paper is to show that territorial marketing is a tool for developing strategies for the attractiveness of territories and cities.

8.Assimilation of traditional architecture influenced by the imported styles
Anton A. Kim, Vera I. Luchkova
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.32032  Pages 71 - 80
The article describes the process of transformation of the local architecture under the influence of adscititious styles. The principles of forming assimilative architecture of China at the levels of urban planning, space-planning solutions and architectural elements are determined. The basic analysis is carried out on the example of borrowed European forms in Chinese architecture of the late 19th– early 20th centuries. Furthermore, a similar process in the architecture of Europe is shown. The main trend of orientalism and its local manifestation of chinoiserie (Chinese style) is reflected. This is the example of the usage of oriental themes in the western architecture. Besides, we analyzed the processes of borrowing of the certain techniques of architectural construction at the modern stage of its development. The conclusions have also been drawn about the necessity of further study of this process as well as the importance of reconstruction, restoration and historical preservation of architecture for future generations.

9.The effect of cyclic relative humidity exposure, sanding and grooving on the dimensional stability of solid wood parquet
Gülru Koca, Nihal Arıoğlu, Nusret As
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.50570  Pages 81 - 90
In this study, the effect of cyclic relative humidity changes, sanding and grooving on the dimensional stability of solid wood parquet were evaluated. The experiments were carried out on oak (Quercus petraea) and sapele (Entandrophragma cylindiricum) wood species. Firstly some physical tests (density, shrinkage, and swelling) were carried out on 20×20×30 mm specimens obtained from these two species. After the physical tests the parquet size specimen groups were obtained both in radial and tangential section directions and in two sizes; narrow (250×50×15 mm) and wide (250×90×15 mm). One group of parquet size specimens was sanded and the other group was grooved. There was also a group of specimen for control. After being conditioned to equilibrium moisture content at 65% relative humidity, specimens were placed in a climate chamber and exposed to cyclic relative humidity changes. The dimensions of the specimens were measured between different environmental conditions and the dimensional change was evaluated by taking into consideration the mentioned physical properties. The results show that cyclic relative humidity changes mainly resulted with an increase in the dimensional stability of sanded and cyclic conditioned specimens. There was not a significant change in the dimensional stability of grooved specimens.

10.Paradigm shift in studio culture
Semra Aydınlı, Burçin Kürtüncü
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.20053  Pages 91 - 108
This study originates from a second year architectural design studio experience which was conducted at İstanbul Technical University, Faculty of Architecture in 2012 and it discusses a paradigm shift in architectural design education in the context of studio culture.

The main motivation distinguishing the studio was to start an open studio culture in a cultivation atmosphere, and elaborate architectural design education in a multifaceted manner while questioning the teaching-learning duality.

'Parallax-Room 3407' inherited its name from the book 'Parallax' by Holl, which triggered the conceptual discussions it is founded on, and the studio 3407 of Taşkışla. The studio during the period of fall semester, followed different synchronous trajectories which are covered in the following subtopics in this paper: Bodily Experience, Critical Thinking, Learning By Doing, Narratives On Urban Context, Parallax: Thinking With Concepts, and Thinking By Representing.

This learning environment referred to a constructivist educational approach, and was founded on the acknowledgement that design knowledge can only be achieved through discovery, not by a passive transmission from the teacher to the student. The contextual character of architectural design knowledge necessitates a paradigm shift; the activation of an open studio culture and burgeoning approaches of learning to learn, learning by discovering/ experiencing/ doing instead of pursuing conventional practices.

11.Important factors in residential complex architecture in Tabriz
Shiva Velayati, Mohammad Reza Pourmohammadi, Rasoul Ghorbani
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.45822  Pages 109 - 121
The architectural aspects of residential complexes are of the important and effective variables in urban structure. The formation of these dimensions reflects some social, economic, political and environmental conditions. To neglect the affecting factors in housing architecture dimensions causes problems and uncertainty in urban planning. This paper intends to evaluate the impact of different economic, social, political, and urban, climate, geological, cultural and religious considerations and their sub-criteria on the architecture of residential complexes in Tabriz, a city in Iran. The architects, urban planners and designers were asked to specify the importance of each of these factors in the formation of architectural dimensions of residential complexes. Using an Analytic Hierarchy Process method (AHP), the role of specified factors in the design of residential complexes in Tabriz was discussed and then these factors were ranked based on their impact. The results showed that economic, political and social factors were more effective than the urban, climatic, geological, cultural and religious considerations on the architecture of residential complexes. According to results, profitability has the highest importance and cultural and religious considerations have the lowest weight.

12.Transformation in a housingdesign story: Reading the spatial typologies of apartment projects in Hatay-Izmir
Berna Yaylalı Yıldız, Fatma İpek Ek, Işın Can
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.26566  Pages 123 - 137
The politics of central government or incentives determine new design-systems of housing plots as well as housing units. Especially after the enactment of the law of urban regeneration for risky areas, regeneration of areas under disaster risk, there has been an acceleration in knocking down old buildings and constructing new ones in inner cities. Thus, this paper focuses on the changes in housing typologies in Hatay-Izmir, in terms of space syntax parameters through the time period 1960-2000, and interprets the final plan-solutions within the perspective of urban regeneration. By accelerating implementations of the urban transformation projects in Hatay region, alternative plan-typologies coming from the past have undergone the socalled “re-design and transformation” process; however, they have actually been substituted by the “never-changing” plan-templates of the apartment typology. We will examine these changes in plan typologies and spatial organisations of the mentioned apartment-projects on the same plots by utilizing the method of space syntax and visibility analysis (VGA). Transformations in spatial configuration in two periods are interpreted through their relationships to shifts in meaning of privacy and daily life represented by degree of permeability and connectivity of housing-unit-plans based on spatial analysis.



 
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