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ITU J Faculty Arch: 15 (2)
Volume: 15  Issue: 2 - July 2018
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3.Dossier Editorial: Reading Istanbul as a ‘Palimpsest’ City

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4.Towards a (non-)theory of the architectural palimpsests
Levent Şentürk
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.69077  Pages 5 - 18
Palimpsest is extensively explored metaphorically but not eroded much theoretically. Gérard Genette, in his outstanding Palimpsests (1982) has unintentionally broadened the architectural vocab. What kind of a diagram could be drawn if the revolutionary communications technologies would be expressed vertically? I tried to work out another playful scheme of history as a stratified model, beginning from Non-Interactive Hierarchical Layering Model to Non-Layering/Hypertrophic Now. Huyssen’s Present Pasts examines palimpsestousness; in Pseudo-Science of Layers I followed that path in a ludic way. Coming back to Genette, hypertext implies the original text. However, each hypogram is in fact a hypergraph, a re-write. In architecture, then, every “real name” is nothing but a pseudonym. (Mimotect instead of Architect.) The word pastiche finds a position with respect to its parallels with modernity. Then follows a palimpsestous literary project; the Lost in Translation experiment: A story is put in a perpetual translation process; all steps become more and more apocryphal. What is lost in translation is found in the parody. Then I foresaw the collapse of my Pseudo-Theory of Palimpsests in various steps, beginning from Techno-palimpsests to Anti-palimpsests. Calvino’s If on A Winter Night a Traveler is a palimpsestous hypertext, a novel that includes only beginnings. I just mentioned some characters like the Native American, The type called Irnerio and finally the most provoking Ermes Manara. I did not refer to concrete examples of Istanbul (or Berlin or another metropolis), I wanted to expand textual tracks, thus indicating other creative channels in architecture.

5.Experiencing city by walking: Communication elements
Duygu Yarımbaş
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.87360  Pages 19 - 30
Istanbul, a city ruled by various civilisations and governments, is quite important both historically, geographically and rich in culture. Cultural activities and spaces within which these activities took place, influenced the city’s building stock, its landscape and organization. New buildings were constructed on top of the foundations of demolished ancestors. Traces of this foregoing layering, visible on the physical environment, has also spreaded to daily life, stories, imageries, culture, etc., while transforming them. These layers are not heterogeneous systems within which the latter covers the former completely in a chronological way; but, heterogenous formations consisting of various densities and dominancies. This process-based “becoming”, explained with the notion of palimpsest, is one of the fundamental characteristics of the city of Istanbul.
Walking act that can potentially foster dérive and détournement practices, depends on semiotics of the city as well as its physicality. The communication elements of the city and its contents such as color, typography and imagery, can be very decisive in terms of drifting (dérive) and twisting (détournement) intentions of city resident.
In order for “transforming” cities by walking, residents have to be encouraged for making “discoveries”. City planners and relevant units should take into consideration that open-endedness, flexibility, transformability, vagueness and openness to surprises can increase the awareness of the user about the environment, by ensuring the permanence of the reflexivity between the city and the pedestrian. The purpose of this paper, is to discuss the potentials which could make this awareness a useful tool for transforming the city.

6.An uncanny ‘Terrain Vague’: Yedikule Gasometer Complex
Tuba Ozkan, Emre Ozdemir
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.89847  Pages 31 - 38
As new spaces add new experiences to the urban life, the spaces that were previously deemed valuable turn into vague areas. These areas, which hosted various experiences once, has been forgotten in some way, left behind and remained idle. The concept of “Terrain Vague” that was brought up once more by the Catalan architect De Sola-Morales twenty years ago is a unique tool to examine these areas.
When the recent past of Istanbul is examined, a countless number of industrial production buildings and facilities, which have lost their functions completely, become visible as perfect “Terrain Vague”.
De Sola-Morales’ asks “How can architecture act in the terrain vague without becoming an aggressive instrument of power and abstract reason?” The answer to this significant question will be looked for in the examination of Yedikule Gasometer Complex. This complex still bears the marks of Istanbul’s industrial past and could be described as “Terrain Vague” within the current use of the term. The values that Yedikule Gasometer introduces to the urban life, its current uses and modes of being vague will be analyzed. The analyses will be discussed through the concept of ‘uncannny’ and by adopting the approach of Surrealism to these types of spatial situations.

7.Reviewing Istanbul’s urban structure through a local retail shop: Neco Cornet Ice Cream Shop
Zeynep Tarçın Turgay
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.57438  Pages 39 - 50
The settlements of Istanbul started with a colony in 7th century BC, continued with becoming a “World city” in the 4th century BC and still go on by being a global metropolis. During the 20th century; the outwards of the urban space were structured by the addition of new big scaled layers over privatized public lands or gecekondu areas rapidly. In the same time, the inner old settlement areas were structured by the slow articulation of fragmental layers over each other in long time periods. This multi-component/straticulate urban structure of the city, which allows and inspires various researches, is handled by the term “palimpsest” in some contemporary studies. Kocamustafapasa Neighborhood of Fatih County reflects the city’s palimpsest character by enclosing the old urban processes’ spatial and socio-cultural traces and functions as a temporal cross section for the citizens.
In this study, Istanbul’s palimpsest character’s reflection over the urban space is scrutinized through a 25 years serving shop in Kocamustafapaşa: Neco Cornet Ice Cream. In the first section, Kocamustafapasa’s history and current state is presented. In the second section; the development of ice cream sector in Turkey is assessed. In the third and fourth sections; the data obtained from the case study is presented and the sectorial position of the case study subject is evaluated. In conclusion, the findings about the structural qualities of the small scaled urban retail shops, Istanbul’s palimpsest character are presented and potential contribution of similar researches to urban studies is emphasized.

8.From borders to boundaries: Istanbul Land Walls
Elif Belkıs Öksüz, Tuba Sarı
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.54366  Pages 51 - 59
The city is a whole with its local, cultural, social dynamics, and built environment. From economics to socio-political, and contextual relations, it contains different kinds of topological relations. In time, these relations become hybrid layers in different ways; and play a decisive role in the change and transformation of the urban context. Therefore, the ‘palimpsest’ is an important notion that reveals the causalities and the relations behind the transformation of an urban context; and a palimpsest urban reading helps us to recognize and understand the dynamic relations of urban transformation by making an inquiry for the physical and contextual values. Through its layers, an urban palimpsest reading makes it possible to observe these characteristic changes and actors involved in changes.
Extending from The Golden Horn to The Marmara Sea, Istanbul Land Walls can be regarded as one of the distinct examples of the urban palimpsest. Since its construction, Istanbul Land Walls have been functioned differently from time to time; and played a critical role in macro-scale and mezzo-scale changes in the urban context. Today, besides showing the patterns of previous civilizations, these buildings also show the traces of a contextual transformation, a transformation from being borders to becoming boundaries. The study discusses the land walls and their impact on the hybridization of the urban context through a historic research, current observation, and photographs in the direction of Topkapı-Yedikule Gates.

9.Istanbul: A landscape in-between virtual and real
Merve Güzel
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.42103  Pages 61 - 68
Istanbul as a landscape… We are experiencing the city through an imaginary forest. That landscape which in flux in-between virtual-real is reproduced in the personal memories again and again.
This paper discusses Istanbul as a landscape. It offers to approach through micro scale that discovery begins to understand that Istanbul is defined as a landscape that consist of virtual-actual folds. It is mentioned in this paper that a new layer which has begun to exist on micro scale in Istanbul.
A new micro-creation has started in the city state in Istanbul. A new interface, a virtual layer which actualizes place to place. This layer which extends in between the real- virtual, is a transition space where people can freely express themselves, can encounter and can create temporal spatiality on the city.
‘The new layer’ that has begun to exist in city on micro scale and in-between virtual- real is author’s own reality as a new view to notion of ‘palimpsest’, it’s a future projection. The expression of the text should be evaluated by taking into consideration this personal reality, the state of being in virtual-real. The streets of the mental city of person and the streets of the physical city start to intertwine. New layer covers on the city, penetrate of the city and correlate antagonistic relations with physical, virtual and other layers, so it is open to discovery.

10.Transformation of mental maps during urban reconstruction in the Tahtakale District considering safety and gender
İrem Anık, Mehmet Akif Çelenk
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.59389  Pages 69 - 81
İstanbul, a city with over 14 million people, is invaded by its own inhabitants every day. With the maps in their minds that have the borders drawn by themselves, millions of vehicles, pedestrians, street animals are reaching from one point to another. During these changes, sometimes city fails to protect its original shape, yet sometimes manages to remain the patterns. Transformation of space is based on the economic and political backgrounds of the country and a new real-estate centered culture is forcibly applied. The isolating approach of politics is leaving traces on urban land. İstanbul, being a palimpsest city and a living organism, has been going through the most active phase of its history. But at the same time, lack of interest in urban esthetics and architecture has led many new problems. Individuals can only adopt and accept their social and physical environments as long as they’re able to give a meaning to it. But the extremist operations reflect on the memory as ruptures, and this causes an unclear future perception and lack of sense of belonging. Tahtakale District which has going through social and physical changing phases is selected to be the case study area. Incidents of near past will be examined in a safety and gender perspective. For the inhabitants, urban land has become the crime scene for harassment; one of the main goals is to study how the change of mental maps will affect the future assumptions and individuals’ behaviors as well as their sense of belonging.

11.Recording the landscape: Walking, transforming, designing
Nazlı Tümerdem
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.00821  Pages 83 - 106
The article explores how the act of walking, used as a tool of transportation, perception, mapping and design; transforms the face of the Earth. The study considers the practice of walking both as a necessity of survival and as an aesthetic practice that constantly (re)constructs the landscape. As humans utilized walking in order to alter their surroundings; architecture, sculpture and manmade landscapes emerged and walking became an art form in itself (Careri, 2007). In this regard, the initial part of the study is a theoretical text about walking, exploring its history and transformation from a tool of transportation to a way of leaving aesthetic marks on the Earth. In the second part, walking is presented as a method to assess the ongoing operations in northern regions of Istanbul. The primary aim is to analyse how the recently imposed transport infrastructure affects the natural form of the city from the lens of a pedestrian. A series of one-day walks, following the route of Northern Marmara Highway, are performed by the author and later transformed into a walking log. As a result, narrative records are created from varied data collected during and after the walks. These records constitute an authentic base study for understanding and designing the city. The practice of walking, always leaving an impact upon the anthropic environment, is considered to be an architectural and aesthetic act, an innate design tool. Therefore, these walks themselves are considered as minor marks and traces that are directly imprinted on Earth’s surface.

12.The (re)production of space with a practice of everyday life in the layers of the city İstanbul; The case study of ‘Conversation space’ Çorlulu Ali Paşa Madrasah
Gizem Özer Özgür
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.73693  Pages 107 - 123
Spatial situations of ordinary actions encountered in everyday life and spatial practices occurred related to these phenomena are mostly ambiguous in the city layers. When examining İstanbul as a ‘palimpsest’ city, the spatial practices in everyday life, how they work and affect society and culture are questioned together in the scope of this study. The aim of this study can be summed up as to discover the characteristics of ‘conversation’ as a simple/ordinary form of dialogue in everyday life that produces space. In the research the meaning is attributed not to the place; to the spatial practices that have emerged in that place and the spatialities are being tested. In this regard, theoretical back ground has been built, enabling us to explore the spatial features appeared about the practice producing the space. This study has been searched the spatial practices and the dynamics triggering the production of space regarding daily life of an urban layer in İstanbul; Çorlulu Ali Paşa Madrasah known as ‘Conversation Space’.
The emphasis of this study is that it will argue that conversation may create an interview environment, that this interview environment may both carry the potential of creating an alternative ‘living dialogue space’, and may be grasped as a channel of an alternative social fact/communalism. With establishment of the links with urban strata, revealing the palimpsest urban spaces have been changing and transforming continuously, relationship networks appeared in these spaces and the characteristic features will begin to be explored.

13.Memory layers, porosity and montage as representative interfaces of anamnesis and forgetting
Tuğçe Gürleyen
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.75002  Pages 125 - 135
Geographical conditions affect behaviors, habits, relationship, mental and emotional orientations of people. The subject that forms the platform for the living memory creates the details of the urban space in the process of experiencing through evoking of the recollection of the memory as it forms the urban spaces. Besides, the role of layering is determinative in relation to memory with spatial organization. This study draws attention to urban places that allow their selves for the possibilities of forming associations and multiple-reading of the memory,
and representative interfaces. It will be discussed how the past lived, gained continuity and formed the sense of time in the practices of the present. While the coexisting is emphasized on holistic memory, the effects that layers and pores have on subjects will be addressed through representations. Within this scope, it has been envisaged to combine memory layers, separated from different contexts with porosity and montage metaphors. The concept of porosity is defined not only as spatial and temporal but also as the mobility of social codes, and transitivity between past and future. The montage in the layered unity of the space also relates to the issue of how two or more different parts form a whole with each other. In this context, the issues of how the relationships between different parts will occur during memory montage, which subjects or acts will define and increase the interval of space-time relationship will only be solved by taking the parameters of memory’s spatial and temporal contexts into consideration.

14.Evaluating the playground: Focus group interviews with families of disabled children
Sima Pouya, Öner Demirel, Sahar Pouya
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.99608  Pages 137 - 146
As landscape architects deal with the design of environments for children, the inclusion of children with disabilities in their peers should be one of the core goals in designing natural settings. They often times face problems while working in public playgrounds, parks and green landscapes mainly due to lack of adequate provisions to meet their special needs. The purpose of the present study is twofold: to investigate different kinds of problems and specific needs of disabled children in natural settings including parks and playgrounds in Ankara (Turkey), and also to offer solutions for solving these problems. This study that is of case study type consists of parents with disabled children aged between 8 and 12 years old. Parents were investigated and interviewed in the research to obtain their perspectives. The findings revealed that there was a necessary need to improve and construct equipped natural settings specialized for children with disabilities.

15.Solar heat transfer in architectural glass facade in Semarang Indonesia
L.m.f. Purwanto, Karsten Tichelmann
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.50465  Pages 147 - 152
Semarang is a city in Indonesia with humid tropical climate. It stays hot and humid all year round. Ironically, many office buildings in Indonesia, including in Semarang, are beginning to use International Style or Glass Architecture. The sun can penetrate such glass facades, raising the room temperature in the building and thus the energy consumption for air conditioning. With the help of the Simulation Program WUFI-2D, this research provides insights on the amount of solar heat transfer that occurs on glass facades. The result shows that the heat transfer in various types of glass facades significantly increases the room temperature inside the building.

16.Latest status of hydropower plants in Turkey: Technical, environmental policy and environmental law from the perspective of the evaluation
Osman Üçüncü
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.79664  Pages 153 - 171
Hydropower plants (HPP) works only with water. Water; vaporized in the presence of sunlight back to earth as rain come again in favorable weather conditions. Here, the water formed in this way is transmitted to the user by depositing After precipitation and flow. This state is one of the most reliable and sustainable energy sources and hydroelectric power plants. But hydropower is also very tight to the fact that the area in which the water cycle as a renewable energy source that is very strictly linked to the global as well as climate change have in some minds. All disciplines interested in this direction with respect to these facilities (all engineering departments, politics and economics and administrative sciences etc.) by drawing lots. In this study, starting from the feasibility stage HEPP construction and operation stages as a whole and in detail. HPP construction of environmental regulations in this area are discussed taking into account the environmental ethics and environmental policy.

17.University rankings on architecture and built environment: The case of Turkey
Orhan Hacıhasanoğlu
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.62681  Pages 173 - 181
Stakeholders of universities like students, faculty, administratives, prospective students and their parents; always looking at rankings of the universities to benchmark the different factors. Faculty, administrative staff and the existing students use rankings to search the quality and the status of the university and the programme, on the other hand prospective students and their parents trying to find out the best university and programme to suit their expects. This paper aim to explain the programme rankings in architecture and also architecture and built environment subjects in the case of Turkey. Istanbul Technical University and Middle East Technical University Architecture Programmes were in the first 100-150 ranks in QS Architecture and Built Environment ranking and also in the first 100 in URAP Architecture ranking in 2017 reports. The paper try to make comparision to the other architecture programmes with these two cases form Turkey on different parameters like age, academic reputation, research, number of students, country, city. The study also aims to consider a projection for the following years in Architecture programme rankings. The prospective schools of architecture which considered as new candidates for the following years also evaluated in this paper. The methodology of the paper is based on the bencharking by using different parameters. The main idea of the paper in conclusion show that these two cases from Turkey had a success story in architecture and built environment programme ranking in these two university ranking systems.

18.Urban transformation through property-led regeneration: A case of building renewals in Istanbul
Elif Kısar Koramaz, Turgay Kerem Koramaz, Özlem Özer
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.95815  Pages 183 - 196
Urban transformation is a prominent topic within Istanbul’s urban planning agenda. Transformation process of the city falls under the scope of academicians and the related authorities; and is a focus of debate from different perspectives in daily life. In this atmosphere, centralised policies promote construction facilities as the leading economic sector, and the legislation sets the legal framework facilitating transformation processes. This transformation in Istanbul occurs in two forms; as area-based regeneration projects and single building renewal processes. Area-based regeneration projects have long been examined due to their widespread effects, however single building renewal also leads to transformation over the long term. The motivation behind this paper is to examine the single building renewal process by means of a case study – Bakirkoy, which is one of the sub-centres of Istanbul. In this context, the paper aims to construct an analytical evaluation of the regeneration process in Bakirkoy and tries to evaluate the process linking it with critiques of property-led regeneration debates worldwide. This paper covers a periodical evaluation of this process by attempting to understand the urban transformation pattern by means of a descriptive spatial analysis, and a discussion of recent policies in Bakirkoy case.

19.Environmental control in architecture by landscape design
Nazire Papatya Seckin
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.90022  Pages 197 - 211
The landscape design is a significant component of effective building design. Landscape elements can provide such benefits to buildings as shielding them from the sun, protecting them against wind, facilitating passive cooling, and providing opportunities for natural ventilation. Furthermore, landscape elements can be useful to clean the air and water, absorb floodwaters, improve aesthetics, provide recreational amenities and develop ecological habitats for wildlife.
The heating, cooling and lighting of a building are very much affected by the site and landscape in which the building is located. Plants are immensely useful in the heating, cooling and lighting of buildings. Landscaping that supports the heating, cooling, and lighting of buildings varies with the climate. The general logic for tree planting around a building includes shade trees on the east and west, wind breaks on the north, and open fields on the south-facing sides. In this connection, lawns should be used only when necessary. On the other hand, a vertical vine-covered trellis is very effective on east and west facades, while a horizontal trellis can be used on any orientation. Outdoor shading structures such as trellises and pergolas, can be used for providing shade and/or to control air movement. Other functional landscaping elements include allées, pleached allées and hedgerows. In short, the following sections discuss some of the critical concepts and topics necessary for understanding landscape design as it relates to sustainable building design.

20.Modernization of colonial heritage in downtown Oran
Fatima Mazouz
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.37029  Pages 213 - 223
Like other countries of the African continent, Algeria has endured the French colonization, during 132 years. After its independence, in 1962, the country has inherited an important built heritage, not testifying to its culture, but that of his colonizer. We worked on the case of downtown Oran, the most European city in the country, and by examining the different strata of development of its colonial built heritage, we set the problematic of its current becoming, combining both its conservation, its rehabilitation and its actualization by contemporary architecture. In order to make this research, we have developed a grid of characteristics of buildings in Oran, which served us as a basis for our typological analysis of buildings and to the evaluation of the heritage value of existing constructions, and the rate of inscription of current transformations into the existing landscape. We also conducted surveys and interviews, during the period between 2013 and 2016 in Oran downtown. This approach is characterized by the highlighting of the elements of the conceptual originality of the colonial heritage and the search for their future, in relation to the socio-cultural dimensions of the country. We hold back that, of by its conception, the colonial heritage is admirable, nevertheless, its conservation is realized through an extremely complex process, conditioned by the policies of the State, the behavior of the users and the cultural and identity data of the country.

21.Civil aviation in Turkey in 1920s and 1930s: Büyükdere AEI facility
Nedime Tuba Yusufoğlu
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.21033  Pages 225 - 240
The seaplanes used for supporting the fleet for the military purposes during World War I, have been used as a new form of transportation technology in 1920s and 1930s as “Golden Age” of aviation in Western countries (in Europe and United States) for the civil and commercial purposes; it has become considerably popular and in great demand. In those years, as an issue being approached in Istanbul simultaneously with Europe and United States, culture and voyage of seaplane had remained as an issue implied and not being significantly researched. Newly-emerging and young many European companies have anticipated route of Turkey as the shortest cut to travel to and connect with East, taken steps and built facilities accordingly and made relevant connections. In this paper, Italian AEI (Societa Anonima Aero Espresso Italiana), being established in 1920s in Büyükdere, European side of Istanbul for civil aviation services, is construed architecturally based upon Archives of the Prime Ministry of the Republic.

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