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ITU J Faculty Arch: 14 (3)
Volume: 14  Issue: 3 - November 2018
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COVER
1.Cover

Page I

EDITORIAL
2.Editorial
Yasin Çağatay Seçkin
Pages II - III

THEORY ARTICLES
3.Export Capacity to Integrate Global Networks and Its Impacts on Regional Economic Success: A Provincial Analysis in Turkey
Bilge Armatlı Köroğlu
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2017.56933  Pages 1 - 12
Export capacity can be used to integrate global networks in order to facilitate and enhance regional economic development. This tactic has been especially prevalent since the 1990s. This study focuses on the relationship between export capacity and regional economic success based on case study findings in 81 Turkish provinces. The findings of the case study are first discussed in terms of Turkish geography. Modeling results show that although there is a positive and significant relationship between regional income and industrial development in terms of export capacity, a region’s centrality in national networks is not related to its export capacity. Accordingly, the positive relationship between a border effect and export capacity is likely to yield economic development strategies for border regions.

4.Historical Development of Darkale Rural Settlement in Soma, Manisa
Ayşen Etlacakuş, Mine Hamamcıoğlu Turan
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2017.83788  Pages 13 - 23
Darkale rural settlement is a village of Soma, Manisa. The main intention of this study is to make conservation aimed evaluation of the historical development of Darkale by questioning the physical characteristics of the present historical settlement with emphasis on its housing units. The way followed is literature review, archive research in the official website of the state archives; field survey, analysis and evaluation of Darkale with the tools of the discipline of architectural restoration; and interpretation of historical data together with physical data.
The archive documents and monumental buildings and the settlement pattern, especially the organization of the housing units have provided a framework for interpreting Turkish period. Nevertheless, for the historical evaluation of the pre-Turkish period, further geo-prospection and archeological research are necessary. In all periods, the brook-valley system has been the gathering, production and commercial area of the settlement. The elevated plateau at the east of Darkale brook with full vista of the surroundings is evaluated as the earliest settlement area in Turkish period. It is relatively safe in terms of its elevated position and has preserved its authenticity. The latter settlement area, circumscribing the plateau at its north, west and south presents various solutions to cope with the high inclination: stone retaining walls, increase in number of stories, passages over streets, and increase in the amount of relations with neighbors including vertical interaction of housing units.

5.Regional Inequality and International Trade in Turkey: A Dynamic Spatial Panel Approach
Hasan Engin Duran, Umut Erdem
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2017.24633  Pages 25 - 39
Aim of the present article is to investigate the impact of trade liberalization on the evolution of regional income inequalities in Turkey between 2004-2011. Despite the large body of literature on this subject, there exists several directions which needs to be further explored. i. so far in the literature, the consept of trade openess is too broadly defined. However, it is not only ‘trade’ per se that can affect the regional economies but the composition of trade is also of great importance (Rodriquez-Pose and Gill, 2006). Indeed, it can be partitioned into two components, such as exports and imports. We analyze separately the impact of each component on the evolution of regional inequalities. ii. in most of the empirical studies dealing with this issue, neighbouring regions are assumed to have no spatial economic interconnection between each other. We, therefore, incorporate spatial spillovers of trade and growth into our analysis. Our results are summarized in two groups: First, regional inequalities in Turkey are quite sizable but tend to decline over the period of analyses. Second, initially poorer regions that experience an export-based liberalization tend to grow faster than richer ones. Imports, on the other hand, have an opposite effect.

6.Post Occupancy Evaluation of a Transformed Design Studio
Orçun Kepez, Selin Üst
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2017.15807  Pages 41 - 52
The decision-makers choices regarding the design and construction of educational spaces have a direct impact on the academic culture. With regard to the design studios, the physical conditions of the studio spaces specifically act as the main element that creates the studio culture. The present study aims at understanding the relationship between the spatial transformation and the expectations of the students. Following a post occupancy approach, we asked, “What can we learn from collection of individual evaluations of students’ on transformed studio environment?” and “Where does this knowledge fit in the readily available literature on built environment and learning spaces?” Twenty-five students are asked to write texts on their expectations related to a transformed studio in which they were receiving education at the time of the study. The texts are first examined for the frequency of the words used via cloud analysis. Following that analysis, two independent evaluators identified the phenomena in the texts and conducted a content analysis. The student expectations are classified into two main groups: Learning Experiences and Spatial Experiences. Learning experience involves three subgroups namely variation in work practices, creativity and social interactions and spatial experience is made up of physical comfort and furniture subgroups. Although during the spatial transformation, some improvement have been made, they did not completely fulfill the students’ expectations. The present study proposes that in such spatial transformations, it would be possible to attain user satisfaction when decision-makers follow participatory processes in which all groups that would be effected can participate.

7.Assessing change in quality of life following rehousing from slum settlements to social housing
Alper Bodur, Yurdanur Dülgeroğlu Yüksel
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.36002  Pages 53 - 65
This article is the result of a study which aimed to evaluate how a group of resettled residents have adapted to their new houses in Istanbul. The removal of squatter dwellers and their relocation to social housing units affect their quality of life after the removal. To assess the quality of life of residents who have now been living for a long time in social housing after their slums were demolished by the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, interviews were conducted with the aid of a questionnaire. A total of 506 interviews was completed in the districts of Eyup, Kartal and Sisli. The results of this research shall serve to provide valuable information, from which improvements in future social housing projects can be made. In the analyses of interview and questionnaire data, seven areas were identified: (1) living conditions, (2) physical factors, (3) environmental factors, (4) comparisons for social relationships, (5) access to services, (6) economic factors, (7) general satisfaction. At the completion of the research, it was found that the users seemed to be more satisfied with the physical factors than the social factors following the demolition of the slums. This study is important insofar as it helps to show that some methods are essential to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of social housing produced by the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. In addition, the study may enable practitioners and policy makers to identify ways of improving the quality of life for social housing residents and the sustainability of new social housing developments.

8.Modeling Spatial Wholeness in Cities Using Information Entropy Theory
Harun Ekinoglu, Ayşe Sema Kubat, Richard Plunz
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.83703  Pages 67 - 81
Descartes states “Divide each difficulty into as many parts as possible and necessary to resolve it.”Deconstruction is not a new idea as demonstrated by Descartes quote but a compelling one for understanding the issues behind complex systems especially as vast as cities. Built form is a relational process and the overall spatial form emerges with a sense of wholeness, a certain degree of completeness, in its topologic embodiment. Using Alexander’s “levels of scale” property of wholeness as a morphologic translation interface, the method developed in this research allows questioning relational scaling formations among the built entities. Shannon’s entropy theory has been employed for measuring the state of uncertainty, and disorderliness conveyed through the multivariate context of morpho-information across varying scales. This study aims to cross-evaluate mean Entropy-IQR values generated for ten cities using proposed method with the survey results that ten experts, architects, urban planners, and landscape architects have rated for ten cities urban layouts in three aspects of the wholeness. Experts do not have an agreement among each other about the wholeness of case study, inter-raters reliability (Kα) is 0,14 and the correlation coefficient between normalized median expert views and mean Entropy-IQR values is 25%. The results indicate that definition and sense of wholeness even for place making experts is not as intuitive as Alexander claims. These findings help to point out the need for evidence-informed analytical methods that measure the relative degree of wholeness in constantly changing cities.

Keywords: wholeness, completeness, multi-scalar, information entropy, measuring

9.The integrated approach for identity establishment of donggala city in indonesia
Amar Akbar Ali, Lukman Nadjamuddin
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2017.88598  Pages 83 - 97
The identity of the city is formed of understanding and meaning (image) of something that exists or ever existed/attached in the city or the introduction of physical and non-physical objects that are formed in time to time. The city’s identity is one of an essential goal to improve the environmental conditions in the future. This study aims to reveal the identity of the Donggala city based on aspects of forming integrated urban identity as a uniqueness overview and its hallmark. The study emphasizes on the descriptive and explanation design through qualitative and quantitative approach conducted by using survey methods. The results showed that there are five aspects of identity-forming of the integrated city: the geographical aspects, historical aspects, accessories aspects, humanist aspects, and the strategic aspects. The best identity in representing Donggala city based on those five aspects is dominated by the disclosure of the identity as the city tourism which emphasis on marine and historical tourism.

10.Optimization of thermal insulation material and thickness for building energy efficiency in Mediterranean climates based on life cycle perspective
Kemal Ferit Çetintaş, Zerrin Yılmaz
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.46338  Pages 99 - 112
Optimizing thermal insulation thickness to save energy and reduce carbon emissions in Mediterranean climates is important. Many standards and regulations on energy efficiency or thermal insulation focus insulation thickness without considering life cycle energy efficiency or environmental impacts. This may lead to unexpected and undesirable results. A new approach for identifying the optimal insulation material and thickness has been applied to a multi-storey residential building in a Mediterranean climate in Turkey. The approach considers life cycle energy consumption, carbon emissions and cost. Energy performance is calculated with details of occupancy, lighting system and internal gains. Results are compared with those of the same building in a cold climate region to show how climate affects life cycle energy and carbon performance. The results of the study show that if insulation thickness is not optimized for a material’s entire life cycle, it may end up being less efficient, more expensive, and have greater carbon emissions than expected, especially in Mediterranean climates.

11.Istanbul: The Characteristics of Vertical Dense Structuring and Image Making in High-Rise Housing Architecture
Tuba Sarı, Yurdanur Dülgeroğlu Yüksel
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.44827  Pages 113 - 126
Urbanization acceleration, land shortage, the prominence of the service sector due to globalization, the development of high technology and information systems, the expansion of multinational companies as well as changing types of users have been the factors that trigger the design of high-rise buildings. The scope of research deals with five different urban centers in Istanbul where high rise housing is increasing dramatically after 2000’s. Therefore, the research regards multi centered urban residential model being created by high rise housing structures in the urban area. In the framework of research hypothesis, it is aimed to prove that the character of vertical dense structuring in Istanbul is based on differentiation, form and image making in the expressive quality, considering the production of existing high rise buildings in residential areas in recent years. As the methodology of research, it is benefited from convenience sampling method while determining high-rises according to some criteria supported by thesis scope. The site analysis is realized by the help of the Sign model of Charles Sanders Peirce. The high rise buildings have been analysed in the context of icon-index-symbol sign parameters, questioning the search for differentiation, form and image.

12.Spatial Evaluation of Primary Sugar Factories in Early Republican Period in Turkey
Ayşe Durukan Kopuz
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.96158  Pages 127 - 141
At the beginning of 1920s in Turkey, one of the most spatial strategy as regards the foundation of the Republic was the development of industrialization. This spatial strategy as well as administrative standpoint, based on economic concerns. Even though it was an outcome of the spatial strategy of The War of Independence, development of Anatolia would be provided with new industrial buildings or by constructing new work places.
The foundation of modern industrial buildings is a neglected episode in the history of twentieth-century urbanism in Turkey. Meanwhile, the establishment of these buildings was driven by the modernizing and industrializing ethos of the modernity Project of Turkish republic. This episode has been the subject of especially electric or textile factories in Anatolian towns at 30’s. However this essay addresses a prior industrial buildings as sugar factories built in 20’s and 30’s in Turkey. Focusing on the visual representations produced by foreign architects, the present case study investigates how this industrialized attitude established the new factories to contribute to economic development of Turkey. More than that, this economic development may be accepted as a tool for desired contemporary and modern country. As a result, this study focuses on exploring used industrial built heritage taking Alpullu, Uşak, Turhal, Eskişehir Sugar factories as a case study.

13.Learning from the ‘RE-PUBLIC Workshop’: Remaking the Public Space as a Medium of Knowledge Transfer in Design Education
Zeynep Günay, Handan Türkoğlu, Burak Pak, Thomas Knorr-siedow, Meriç Demir Kahraman, Özge Çelik, Christine Fuhrmann
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2017.07108  Pages 143 - 163
This paper presents the outcome of ‘The RE-PUBLIC Workshop: Remaking the Public Space’, which took place in Istanbul as part of European Union Life Long Learning Erasmus Intensive Programme 2014. It focused on complex and diversified layers of public space within the context of the place-making logic. Istanbul’s Taksim region including the Taksim Square, Gezi Park and Istiklal Street acted as the core problem area with its disintegrated and segregated physical and cultural territorial borders. The participants were invited to develop their own understanding of public space and jointly produce their own place-making strategies on possible alternatives for the process of planning, designing and implementing change in public spaces in accordance to their scope, use and meaning. As a result, the RE-PUBLIC Workshop tested a number of innovative research and planning methods to improve teaching in planning and design studies. A major impact was expected from the cross-country approach and joint-learning. It is hoped that the experience of RE-PUBLIC Workshop will provide a critical medium of knowledge transfer in design education.

14.Landscape in Architecture. A place between culture and civilization
Rafael Francesconi Latorre, William Blain López
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2017.77698  Pages 165 - 174
This paper evaluated two alternatives to rightfully conceive the relation between landscape and architecture: a historical reconstruction and some interpretations of philosophical sources, as. This evaluation was achieved by an identification of precedents in order to characterize the context of the problem; by a selection of representative examples for illustrating the type of difficulties that arise from historical reconstructions or from interpretations of philosophical sources; and by a proposal of some criteria to articulate both historical and theoretical sources, based in the analysis of the selected examples. As a conclusion of such evaluation, it was stated that by keeping in mind the distance between the philosophical sources and its interpretation, and by appreciating an architectural theory by its performance, rather than by its production of truths, it is possible, at least partially, to overcome the found difficulties. This conclusion invites to understand civilization as a project to contribute to a common heritage. In its turn, such understanding would help to reach a balance with interests tied to local cultures.

15.The vocabulary of post consumer packaging waste in the built environments: A qualitative study
Arulmalar Ramaraj, Jothilakshmy Nagammal
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.32704  Pages 175 - 179
Innovative applications of post consumer packaging units in architecture are traced from the Hellenistic period. Interpreting the Romans’ eco sensitivity, post industrial revolution era witnessed the development of ‘eco-centric ideal’ and ‘prospector’s, cook’s and nomad’s approaches’. The primary objective is to study the unique strategies and techniques developed by architects, artists, technocrats and environmentalists in reusing the primary, secondary and tertiary packaging waste in the built environments. For the study, thematic analysis is adopted to investigate and consolidate the diverse practices in today’s context. The summary of findings reveals the embedded design processes, the vocabulary created by such structures in the environment portraying the current use of post consumer packaging waste as building blocks in load and non load bearing components, techniques developed in erecting ephemeral spaces creating a dialogue with the environment, offering a variety of spatial experiences to the viewers, visitors and the users. We posit that a comprehensive understanding of such approaches and concepts give new directions to evolve and develop ideas with the used packaging materials in open ended prefabricated systems.

16.Le Corbusier’s Exhibition Pavilion: The Heterogeneous Character of his Modernism Between Representation and Functionalism
Efe Duyan
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2017.83702  Pages 181 - 194
This study investigates the exhibition spaces designed by Le Corbusier and their common features by describing and classifying them as the existing literature does not offer a full genealogy of his exhibition spaces with the intent to identify connections between them. The relationship of architecture and the exhibited object is the key concept in understanding of the exhibition spaces, including the pavilions, galleries, and some of his museums, which can be described in three main groups: in the first group, architecture becomes the representation itself as a nomadic gesture. In the second group, the structure separates itself from the materiality of the exhibition to create a dual existence and in the third group, the structure and the exhibition obtain singular yet connected and well-defined identities. The reading of exhibition spaces indicates a career-long search by Corbusier for the identity of architecture as a representation of the exhibition itself, which explains the emergence of a template in the late years. The development of exhibition spaces from 1924 to 1962, evidences the existence of a clear leitmotif, which connects Corbusier's pavilions one another and represents his conception of exhibition space. All temporary exhibition spaces have a very specific shape, which can be described as a reverse double triangular at the roof or on the facade. The relation of this formal leitmotif as the common feature and the understanding of exhibition space reveals an example of Corbusier's rationalism, which contains elements of symbolism, formalism and functionalism as a synthesis.



 
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