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ITU J Faculty Arch: 14 (1)
Volume: 14  Issue: 1 - March 2017
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3.An Investigation On The Attitudes Towards Adopting The Design By Coding Paradigm
Bülent Onur Turan, Kemal Şahin, Ümit Işıkdağ
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2017.18209  Pages 1 - 11
The recent developments in the digital technologies have led to an increase in the parametric modelling efforts and the use of parametric patterns in design. In order to manage this new paradigm where the design is becoming more digital, the designer needs to utilize his/her analytical abilities in an effective manner as this is the only way for precise representation of concepts in the actual design itself.
The parametric design is a holistic process. A key element of this is the development of design through coding. In this context, the aim of the study was understanding the attitudes of architects and architecture students towards adoption of analytical/algorithmic methods and specifically the object oriented paradigm and design-by-coding. In the first stage a randomly selected group of volunteers were provided training in object oriented programming concepts and design-by-coding over 15 weeks (and a total of 45 hours). Later in this study two data collection tools were utilised to understand the attitudes of the participants towards design-by-coding. The first tool used was an attitude scale, while the second tool used was a web based questionnaire survey. The results indicate that the participants did not show a significant positive attitude towards design by coding. This result might have been caused by the difficulties faced during the study, as the participants were experiencing a design-by-coding exercise as the first time. In fact, it is also observed that algorithmic thinking and parametric design abilities of the designers can be enhanced by training on design-by-coding concepts.

4.Early Energy Simulation of Urban Plans and Building Forms
Kerem Beygo, Mehmet Ali Yüzer
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2017.67689  Pages 13 - 23
Cities play a major role in more efficient use of energy sources, deployment of renewables, energy efficiency and successful implementation of climate policies. Energy planning in cities and energy performance assessment of new settlements is a new research area that needs efforts from various disciplines. This study introduces a method for energy performance assessment of a new development area in the planning phase. Energy performance of an urban plan designed for a development area of Milas is assesssed by using several building parameters. Obtained results showed that building parameters, urban forms can cause significant energy reductions and the building parameters and urban forms that perform better can be proposed to urban planners, architects, and construction engineers. This study clearly underlines the importance of early energy performance assessment of settlements, neighborhoods and urban areas.

5.Resilience, Space Syntax and Spatial Interfaces: the case of River cities
Ehsan Abshirini, Daniel Koch
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2017.65265  Pages 25 - 41
Resilience defined as the capacity of a system to manage impacts, keep its efficiency and continue its development has been scrutinized by researchers from different point of views over the past decades. Due to the prominence of resilience in urban planning, this paper intends to find out how the spatial structure of cities deals with disturbances, and if geographical phenomena such as rivers affect the resilience in cities. Using the space syntax to syntactically analyze the resilience in cities, we innovatively introduce two measures; similarity and sameness. These measures are in relation with the syntactical properties of cities and compare the degree of resilience between different groups. Similarity measures the degree to which each city retains the relative magnitude of its foreground network after a disturbance and sameness is the degree to which each city retains the same segments as its foreground network after a disturbance. Likewise to network resilience studies, we apply different disturbances on cities and explore the reaction of cities to disturbances in terms of size of the foreground network and which segments are parts thereof. We then compare different groups based on these measurements as a method to analyze sameness and similarity. The results show that the resilience, in the way we define it, is different in different cities depending on in which view and based on which parameters we are discussing the resilience. Additionally morphological phenomena such as rivers have a great impact on the structure of cities and in turn on their resilience.

6.Use Of Public Spaces In Private Space-Led Urbanization: The Cases Of Kadiköy and Ataşehir In Istanbul
Ebru Firidin Özgür, Sinem Seçer, Barış Göğüş, Tolga Sayın
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2017.38258  Pages 43 - 56
Public spaces have been in interrogation in last decades. The focus of the discussions is privatization of public spaces, regarding the way of urbanization. The approaches to the publicness of public spaces developed via diverse considerations such as the ambiguous meanings of the concepts of public and private, the role of public institutions, and control on public spaces. These approaches basically depend on the experiences of advanced capitalist societies. In this research, the aim is to understand the basic characteristics of public spaces in terms of user profiles and user habits in Istanbul in two distinctive districts in Asian side. The public space literature on İstanbul suffers from the lack of the research depending on field survey. Hence, one of the areas is Kadıköy which is located in central part, and urbanized in a conventional fashion. The other one is West Ataşehir developed in the last decade, and built up as a constellation of gated communities, which is called private space-led urbanization in this research. Also, West Ataşehir is announced as a new CBD, the so called “Finance Centre of Istanbul”. The findings of field research are interesting in terms of similar profiles of users, and quite different with regard to user habits in both cases. The article has for main parts, introduction clarifies the problem, the second part summarizes the debates on public space and publicness, the third part shows the results of the field research, and the last part includes results and conclusions.

7.Place Attachment in a Tirana Neighborhood: The Influence of the “Rebirth of the City” Project
Edmond Manahasa, Ahsen Özsoy
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2017.31932  Pages 57 - 70
This paper studies the environmental behaviors of Tirana dwellers in a former socialist period neighborhood which has been the subject of a project called “Rebirth of the City”. This project was an undertaking of the municipality of Tirana, the capital city of Albania, and had as its goals to stabilize the urban chaos and clean the informal constructions by treating the neighborhoods with colorful artwork. The neighborhoods within this research are treated as a concept formed by housing blocks and public spaces. The aim of the research is to understand the relationship of the dwellers and their place attachment to the neighborhood during the socialist and post-socialist period. This study will be conducted through the method of observation and questionnaire. At the end of the study, it is expected to find out how the “Rebirth of the City” project impacted the dwellers’ relationship with their neighborhood. In particular, whether or not this renovation project influenced dwellers' place attachment will be examined. The role of place attachment as a concept in this relation will be also brought into consideration.

8.Changing effect of place on frontage design in the context of cultural sustainability
Şebnem Ertaş, Aslı Taş
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2017.09797  Pages 71 - 89
The most important component that forms the values, lifestyle, beliefs, traditions, in short, the whole of the material and spiritual values of a society is culture. Culture is the whole of the things that the human learned, applied and maintained as long as they exist. Culture shows change and sustainability as a result of differentiation of factors which compose the culture. The architecture that is one of the important components that reflect the culture is also affected by this change process. The characteristic features of existing cultural identity in architecture are observed in houses where the daily life is maintained. The functional changes occurred in houses are reflected physically and they mostly affect the frontage construct as well. Thus, the character of the street where the houses are located is also changed. In this context, in study, there was aimed to examine the effect of spatial changes occurred dependent on time on frontage construct in houses where non-Muslim people who were exposed to population exchange and Muslim people who were settled to the houses which were quit after population exchange in the settlement of Sille that is connected to the city of Konya. The effect of time-dependent spatial change of 10 (ten) tiered genuine houses in Haci Ali Aga Street that is the important house settlement in Sille on frontage shaping was examined through the graphics created and physical changes (frontage character) were revealed via functional changes (spatial).

9.An Analysis of the Properties of Recycled PET Fiber-Gypsum Composites
Seda Erdem, Nihal Arıoğlu
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2017.70288  Pages 91 - 101
The production of composites materials has gained importance due to the increasing and more complex needs of today. By adding PET fibers, which are among recycled products, into the composites, the use of limited raw material resources and the harm to the environment during the processes during the lifecycle of the product is minimized. Additionally, gypsum, which is used as matrix in the composite, is easily obtainable, has adequate raw material resources, is easily given form, produces a clean-flat surface, has sufficient tensile and compressive strength and is a good humidity equalizer and sound regulator. However, gypsum has a low impact strength and toughness value. As it is necessary to increase its impact resistance, some research is carried out to this end. In this study, composite material is produced by adding polyethylene terephthalate fibers that are recycled products manufactured from recycled PET bottles and which have not been tried before and PVA based adherence-enhancing additive into the gypsum matrix to improve the properties of gypsum. Test results show that with the addition of fiber the flexural strength of gypsum has somewhat decreased but the addition of the adherence-enhancing additive has considerably increased the compressive and flexural strength. As expected from fiber reinforced composites, the impact and toughness values of the material has considerably increased. The positive effect of the adherence additive between the gypsum matrix and the fiber is clearly visible in the micro analysis carried out.

10.The Effect of Relative Humidity and Moisture to the Durability of Spruce and Laminated Timber
Tuğba Gülfem Kaya, Mustafa Erkan Karagüler
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2017.18480  Pages 103 - 110
Wood is a hygroscopic material. Material properties are affected by the hygroscopicity of wood; for example, the strength value decreases with increasing moisture content of wood. Wood in the living tree generally has a moisture content (MC) of 30% or greater. The cell wall is fully saturated. After the tree is felled, the green wood is exposed to atmospheric conditions. It loses water until it comes to an adequately low moisture content to be at equilibrium with the surrounding atmosphere. This is called equilibrium moisture content (EMC) which is approximately proportional to the relative atmospheric humidity (RH). Also, EMC varies with the kind and distribution of cell-wall constituents, different wood species, affected by temperature, between heartwood and sapwood, extractives, previous exposure history and mechanical stress. The EMC decreases with decreasing relative humidity, also, increases with the increasing relative humidity of the surrounding air at a constant temperature. The important point that the EMC at a given relative humidity is not constant. It is increased or decreased to reach equilibrium depends on the level of moisture in the timber. The paper presents experimentally and theoretically approach to the effect of relative humidity and moisture to the durability of spruce and laminated timber during to drying and wetting exposure.

11.Daylighting and architectural concept of traditional architecture: The Tongkonan in Toraja, Indonesia
Parmonangan Manurung
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2017.65487  Pages 111 - 126
Indonesia has more than three hundred tribes distributed in various islands where each tribe is divided into several traditions, and this means Indonesia has hundreds of traditional architecture. One of the traditional architecture which has a unique design and a representation of Austronesian style is a traditional house Tongkonan. Tongkonan, built by the ancestors of the Toraja people, is based on their belief which called Aluk Todolo. This belief arranges the orientation of Tongkonan, sun has a great influence in the arrangement of exterior and interior space in Tongkonan.

The aim of this study is to find the relationship between the spatial patterns generated through Aluk Todolo belief and the quantity/quality of daylighting obtained based on light measurements and the review of the various theories on daylighting. The method used in this research is quantitative by measuring the quantity of daylight. This is supplemented by a review of theories about Aluk Todolo belief and architecture of Tongkonan within the framework of the theories of daylighting.

The results of the research show that although designed by ancestral belief, the architectural design of Tongkonan has already met the rules of daylighting design. The quantity of daylight inside Tongkonan has accommodated the needs of functions and activities. Design of Tongkonan’s roof has an important role in optimizing daylight and reducing solar heat and ultraviolet. In conclusion, traditional architecture designed based on Aluk Todolo belief has provided good quality and quantity daylight and can support the functions and activities of the building.

12.Filling an Urban Void as a ‘Public Interior’ in Balikesir; Contemporary Intervention into Historic Context through Interior Space
Murat Cetin
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2017.19870  Pages 127 - 135
The paper argues the role of interior spaces in linking the urban open space configuration. The interior space is discussed as extensions of urban spaces and urban spaces as extensions of interiors with specific reference to a case study selected in Balıkesir urban fabric. Under the light shed by these discussions, the paper questions the certainty of boundries between exterior and interior, thus between interior design and architecture. While the first axis of discussion focuses on the duality between interior and exterior, the second axis of discussion concentrates on the insertion of new and contemporary architectural and spatial features into an existing and historic context. The Museum and Library of Photography project in Balıkesir, which is selected as case study, is based on a VOID connecting what exists with what disappeared long ago in a totally new combination. Consequently, paper shows that architectural identity of the existing (and sometimes disappeared) heritage is reproduced via injection of this new hybrid (interior-exterior) into the very heart of the existing urban fabric. The hybrid design of the VOID intends to resolve the tensions between the contrasting features of restoration and intervention merely by understanding the conditions and fundementals of the process of historical layering in the town.

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