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ITU J Faculty Arch: 13 (2)
Volume: 13  Issue: 2 - July 2016
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1.Cover

Page I

EDITORIAL
2.Editorial
Gül Koçlar Oral
Page II

DOSSIER EDITORIAL
3.Energy efficiency in buildings/Building physics and environmental control
Gül Koçlar Oral
Pages 1 - 3
Abstract | Full Text PDF

DOSSIER ARTICLES
4.Energy, economic and environmental analyses of photovoltaic systems in the energy renovation of residential buildings in Turkey
Suzi Dilara Mangan, Gül Koçlar Oral
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2016.05668  Pages 5 - 22
The energy and environmental problems, which have arisen due to the significant increase in energy consumption, require the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the building sector which is the main source of primary energy consumption in Turkey. In this regard, in order to decrease the energy demand of buildings, supporting for in situ energy production and promoting the use of renewable energy sources, which are contributing causes to the self-sustainable buildings, take precedence over the other measures for resolving the energy related challenges of Turkey and dealing with the sustainability issues. Therefore, this paper aims to introduce a study on the assessment of the energy potential of the photovoltaic (PV) system considering a multi criteria evaluation which involves both economic convenience and environmental impacts. This study was conducted for five climate zones of Turkey through an evaluation that accounts for the crucial parameters related to the energy, economic and environmental analysis which have considerably impact on the promotion of PV system applications in terms of the energy renovation of existing residential buildings. The findings of the study can serve to underscore the potential PV profitability concerning the achievement of low carbon economy target of Turkey.

5.Evaluation of photovoltaic systems in different building forms in terms of energy and cost efficiency
Hatice Merve Yanardag, Gulten Manioglu
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2016.35762  Pages 23 - 30
Being an environmentally clean energy source and with its high potential, solar energy is widely considered as the most efficient alternative energy source. Meeting energy needs of buildings using solar energy is possible by achieving an energy efficient building envelope design through the use of passive and active solar energy systems. Photovoltaics (PV), as the active system, converts solar radiation directly into electricity and can meet part of the total energy loads of a building contributing to the sustainability and energy efficiency of the building. In this study, the goal is to evaluate photovoltaic systems in different building forms in terms of energy and cost efficiency and to identify the most efficient building form and photovoltaic system alternative. Different building forms, with the same volume to building envelope surface ratio (V/A) are developed, and all forms are further fitted and compared with flat, pitched and gabled roofs. Additionally, different tilt angles for photovoltaic panels, different building component on which the panels are mounted and different orientations are used to obtain multiple different alternatives.When comparing annual energy loads and gains obtained in different building forms, the most efficient alternative which provide the lowest energy consumption and the highest energy gain can be identified with its cost. The results of this study can provide guidance for the design of energy and cost efficient building systems to eliminate the negative impact of fossil fuels on the environment.

6.The performance evaluation of the modular design of hybrid wall with surface heating and cooling system
Selcen Nur Erikci Çelik, Gülay Zorer Gedik, Burcu Parlakyıldız, Mevlüt Gürsel Çetin, Aliihsan Koca, Zafer Gemici
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2016.48658  Pages 31 - 37
Reducing the use of mechanical heating and cooling systems in buildings, which accounts for approximately 30-40% of total energy consumption in the world, has a major impact on energy conservation. Considering the formation of buildings that have sustainable and low energy utilization, structural elements as well as mechanical systems should be evaluated with a holistic approach. From this point of view, in this study it is proposed that wall elements, which are vertical building elements, and constitute a broad area within the structure, are regulated with a different system concerning the reduction of building energy consumption ratio. Within the scope of this study, integration of modular wall elements with surface heating and cooling system which are convenient for using hybrid energy, into the buildings will be evaluated.
One of the aims of the study is to determine the direct impact of the product on architectural design process and identify the issues that will affect the process, and need to be resolved. In design, implementation and usage phases, integration of technical combination and montage details of modular wall elements, together with issues regarding energy saving, heat-saving, and other environmental aspects will be discussed in detail.
As a result, the ready-wall product with surface heating and cooling modules will be created and defined as hybrid wall and will be compared with the conventional system in terms of thermal comfort. After preliminary architectural evaluations, certain decisions that will affect whole architectural design processes (pre and post design) such as the performance in implementation and use, maintenance, lifetime, and renewal processes will be evaluated in the results.

7.The effect of solar heat gain on climate responsive courtyard buildings
İdil Erdemir Kocagil, Gül Koçlar Oral
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2016.93898  Pages 39 - 46
Traditional houses are regarded as the best examples of energy efficient design due to their climate responsive design approach. Thus, traditional Diyarbakir houses in the hot-dry climate zone provide passively comfortable indoor environments without consuming excessive energy by their proper design parameters. Especially, during summer period, cooling loads are reduced by virtue of their climate responsive design despite high outdoor temperatures and intensity of solar radiation. In this study, the effect of solar heat gain on heating-cooling loads in courtyard buildings derived from central courtyard plan with different A/V ratios is evaluated. Moreover, the alterations of indoor conditions between seasonal parts, which are placed around the central courtyard in order to obtain optimum amount of solar gain, are analyzed. As a result, the efficiency of heating-cooling load provided by climate responsive design is aimed to be highlighted by considering the passive building performance of courtyard buildings in hot-dry climate zones in relation to solar heat gain.

8.Energy efficient mobile building design
Hatice Hilal Parlak Arslan, Şule Filiz Akşit
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2016.96658  Pages 47 - 56
Mobile buildings consume less energy compared to traditional stable buildings in pre-construction, construction, occupancy/maintenance and recycling stages in terms of lifecycle. The reduction of the energy consumption of the houses during their lifecycle is going to play an important role in the decrease of fossil fuel consumption. The purpose of this study is to develop a model to guide designers in terms of designing mobile buildings for the production of energy efficient buildings that do minimum harm to the environment, are suitable for climatic data, use renewable energy sources and are flexible for user needs that grow or decrease in size. The proposed mobile building is a single story energy efficient house in Istanbul for four people, which is developed by examining modern mobile building models. The building’s design process was examined in detail including general design decisions and the effective use of energy, water, and materials. The building envelope alternatives created during this process were analyzed with Autodesk Ecotect Analysis 2011 software and according to the data obtained from the simulation program the final building envelope that decreases energy consumption has been identified. This final building envelope’s energy loads are designed to be met with solar energy systems like photovoltaics and solar panels. Decreasing the energy consumption of houses during their lifecycle with energy efficient mobile building design was the aim of this study.

9.Proposal of a façade design approach for daylight performance determination in buildings
Feride Şener Yılmaz
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2016.49140  Pages 57 - 64
Daylighting is a key component for incorporating visual comfort conditions and reducing energy consumption in buildings. In order to assess daylight potential in the building design phase, diverse performance metrics are developed and are being used in building design phase. These metrics are also integrated into several dynamic lighting simulation algorithms so architects, lighting designers or façade consultants can practically determine the daylight performance of designated façade alternatives in terms of daylight availability, compare design variants and perform necessary revisions during the building design phase. This study deals with proposal of a façade design process in terms of daylight performance determination and aims to describe current daylight metrics that can be used for façade design and applications. Proposed process consists of determination stages based on daylight illuminance, control of glare and view out conditions. With the implementation of this process to façade design, it is possible to provide visual comfort conditions and minimise lighting energy efficiency in buildings.

10.A pilot study regarding to analysing the performance of the lighting system
Seda Kaçel, Alpin Köknel Yener
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2016.00922  Pages 65 - 72
Through the studies that obtain information about the user experience on lighting system performance, user satisfaction can be obtained. These studies are significant in order to analyse the system as a later stage and make recommendations. Following a post-occupancy evaluation (POE) study having focused on the user experience on the lighting system, the lighting system of the case study building has been analysed within this paper. In this analysis, the daylighting system and artificial lighting system have been examined. The design parameters for each system have been determined and different scenarios have been created. Under the impact of different scenarios, the performances of the daylighting and artificial lighting systems were analysed through the validated lighting simulation software DIALUX. It has been observed that the scenarios created for both the daylighting system and the artificial lighting system have had different impacts on the related systems. Through this kind of analysis studies, the most suitable lighting system design solution can be obtained for the evaluated space.

11.A research on the effect of classroom wall colours on student’s attention
Fazıla Duyan, Ünver Rengin
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2016.57441  Pages 73 - 78
In this study, the effect of classroom wall colours on student’s attention was investigated. The research was conducted with the age groups of 8-9 in the two primary schools, one private the other state. These schools have a different socia-cultural and economic scale. A total of 78 students participated in this study. Five colours (5R 7/8, 5Y 7/8, 5G 7/8, 5B 7/8, 5P 7/8) were selected by using Munsell Colour System and classroom walls were painted for five consecutive weeks. The students had lessons under different wall colours and the attention tests were performed on students the end of the weekday. The results show that attention scores were the highest in the purple (5P 7/8) wall colour conditions and the lowest in the red (5R 7/8) wall colour conditions.

12.Effect of sound environment on homework performance
Mine Aşcıgil Dincer, Sevtap Yılmaz
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2016.71677  Pages 79 - 86
Noise may impair childhood development and education, which may have lifelong effects on academic achievement and health. Children are known to be exposed to unhealthy levels of noise at home and at school. Long term exposure to environmental noise, especially to airport noise, in schools, effect attention, comprehension, recall and recognition skills. Acute noise exposure was found to effect recall and recognition in students. Irrelevant speech, even in an unfamiliar language, interferes with serial recall skills and causes attentional distraction.
Although the studies on noise exposure of children are executed in schools, home learning environment should provide auditory comfort conditions for homework performance. In this study, the effect of various sound environments on homework performance was investigated through the duration and correctness of solving algebraic equations in multiple choice tests. High school students (17-18 years, N=32) solved quadratic equations listening to sound clips (LAeq=55 dBA): quiet (no sound), aircraft takeoff sound, continuous road traffic sound, verbal television sound, a music piece and children playing (talking, screaming, running).
Statistically, aircraft, verbal and children sounds effected homework performance, road traffic and music piece did not. Playing children sounds, which include speech, screaming and running, had a more impairing effect than speech from television, even though they had the same equivalent sound level. Participants’ self-reported activity disturbance was dependent on the duration to solve the algebraic equations. The study shows the importance of sound insulation against airport noise, neighbor noise and even noise inside the home, for the academic performance of children.

13.Assessment of sound environment pleasantness by sound quality metrics in urban spaces
Derya Çakır Aydın, Sevtap Yılmaz
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2016.75547  Pages 87 - 99
Purpose of this study is to generate Sound Quality Index (SQI) in order to estimate pleasantness of users with sound environment in urban spaces by employing sound quality metrics together such as loudness, sharpness and roughness, which are frequently stated in soundscape studies as it is directly related to human perception. For this purpose, binaural sound records have been conducted and quantitative data of loudness, sharpness and roughness of these metrics of the sound records has been calculated. 27 sound clips, containing different quantitative data of each of the three metrics, have been generated by picking them out of binaural sound records. Participants have listened to the sound clips at laboratory environment, and have been applied jury test. Correlations between pleasantness of users with sound environment and sound quality metrics have been determined by analyzing results from jury test and quantitative data of sound clips. SQI has been generated with a correlation model by using Regression Analysis method. In order to check the accuracy of the model, surveys have been conducted on users at the field and binaural sound records have been taken simultaneously to the surveys. Quantitative data obtained from sound records has been calculated by SQI, and pleasantness level of users with sound environment has been estimated. Results obtained from surveys conducted at the field and results estimated by SQI have been compared. Apart from quantitative data of sound records, effect of parameters that might affect pleasantness of users with sound environment in urban spaces has been determined.

14.Subjective and objective assessment of environmental and acoustical quality in schools around Istanbul Ataturk International Airport
Nurgün Tamer Bayazıt, Bilge Şan Özbilen, Zeynep Savcı Özgüven
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2016.82713  Pages 101 - 119
Air traffic noise maps have been drawn for Istanbul Ataturk International Airport. With the establishment of these maps, a study was conducted by using subjective and objective methods in order to assess the noise annoyance levels of students and teachers of schools around airport. Questionnaires and intelligibility tests were designed (with different questions for teachers and students) in order to measure the effect of noise among students and teachers as the classrooms’ users. A total of seven hundred and twenty (720) students and one hundred and fourteen (114) teachers completed the questionnaire, which was mainly designed to define their ability to differentiate different noise sources (originating both internally or externally), and their annoyance levels with these noise sources. The results reveal that overall, students tend to be more annoyed than teachers; aircraft noise is considered the main external noise source and students’ chatter is rated the main internal noise source for both groups. Parallel to the annoyance study, internal and external noise measurements have been carried out to provide information on typical noise levels, to which children are exposed at school. In order to evaluate the acoustical quality of classrooms, four elementary schools within a 5 km radius of the airport were selected and three acoustical parameters have been investigated: background noise level, reverberation time and sound insulation. Finally, in one of the selected school’s classrooms, a two-stage improvement study was realised. Results revealed the striking effect of lower reverberation values on increasing speech intelligibility.

THEORY ARTICLES
15.Continuity of regional identity: A case study of facade elements in traditional Çeşme houses
Özlem Atalan
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2016.49368  Pages 121 - 131
A clear understanding of the meaning of sustainable conservation is crucial for cities and settlements. Sustainable conservation can be achieved by protecting the architectural identity of a region. The continuity of historic civic elements preserves the identity and image of cities and settlements. In this context, this study focuses on the importance of sustaining a settlement’s identity. In doing so, changes in the architectural characteristics of the facades of the traditional houses in the Çeşme Castle Conservation Area were considered. Herein, the research methods include field study procedures to identify and analyze the area, and the building materials and facade elements characterize the continuity of regional identity. The results of this research show that architectural facade elements in traditional houses strongly emphasized the regional identity of Çeşme.

16.A computational approach to generate new modes of spatiality
Ethem Gürer
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2016.47966  Pages 133 - 142
Questioning new modes of spatiality in design through evolutionary approaches is becoming more significant than ever. Related to the very common use of contemporary evolutionary methodologies, metaphorical relations coming out between design thinking and different structures (open and closed) and also new forms of space in architectural design are now being discussed. We are trying in this research, to query such a relationship between design and poetic language in order to generate new frames of spatiality supported by the syntactic structure of poetic grammar.

17.Life cycle assessment of energy retrofit strategies for an existing residential building in Turkey
Suzi Dilara Mangan, Gül Koçlar Oral
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2016.26928  Pages 143 - 156
Energy consumption in residential buildings contributes significantly to negative environmental impacts such as climate change and ozone depletion, and the implication for carbon dioxide emissions reductions in buildings during the construction phase as the embodied carbon and the operation phase in the form of operational carbon are widely acknowledged. Investment on creating a sustainable built environment especially through energy retrofit strategies for buildings has been progressively increasing over the last decade. To identify optimum energy retrofit strategies for reducing both energy consumption and CO2 emissions, this paper presents a simplified life cycle model and implements this to a case study focused on different climate regions of Turkey. The objective of this study is to develop effective strategies on the improvement of building energy performance for different climate regions, which is important for optimum use in the sense of country resources and decision makers. Also the energy and environmental performances of the residential buildings regarding these strategies are assessed on the basis of a comparative method in the framework of life cycle. In this study based on life cycle energy and environmental performance, the alternatives related to energy retrofit strategies were evaluated in order to improve the energy performance of the existing residential buildings. In this context, the effect of each measure on life cycle energy consumption and CO2 emissions was determined by using the “Life Cycle Energy (LCE)” and “Life Cycle CO2 (LCCO2)” analyses developed based on the life cycle assessment (LCA) method.

18.Reflections of 1904’s Erzurum to current Erzurum
Ömer Atabeyoğlu
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2016.41713  Pages 157 - 173
Human activities and natural influences contribute to the heritage of a city through their richness. The relationship of a city’s historical processes and their contemporary reflections may only be assessed with the data and documents inherited from its past periods.
Erzurum City has a rich and bright historical past. Erzurum as one of the most crucial cities of the past has brought a glorious heritage from past to present. The oldest original map that serves as a source of information on the structure of the city is the one drawn by Fuat Bey in 1904 that is kept in Erzurum museum. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between the present status of Erzurum and its past through information obtained from the 1904 city plan of Erzurum.
The study was initiated with a survey of the literature on the history and urban culture of Erzurum City and the evaluation of data collected from the 1904 map. Afterwards, the data provided on Fuat Bey’s Map is compared with today’s data of Erzurum. The coordinates have been taken, and the buildings and structures mentioned on the map which have survived until today have been photographed. Furthermore, their present situations, their usage and their functions in urban structure of Erzurum have been revealed.
In the results section, all of the existing structures mentioned on the historical map have been processed on the map of the current city. Thus, the city’s historical change, its protection and its destruction, additionally their impacts on the development of the city is shown.

19.Teaching the “Science of Antiquities” in the Late Ottoman Turkey: Eckhardt Unger and “İlm-i Asar-ı atika Medhali” [Introduction to the Science of Antiquities]
Gül Cephanecigil
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2016.46320  Pages 175 - 184
Archaeology, art & architectural history, and aesthetics were all new fields of intellectual activity in the late Ottoman era. Even as some of them were being taught in institutions of higher education and articles were appearing in journals and newspapers on these subjects, it was difficult to name their development as the emergence of separate new disciplines. Rather, the general tableau they presented was a composite area of interest with a high degree of interpenetration. As for courses in academic institutions, the professors usually were not trained in these areas and the courses had neither continuity nor a precisely defined content. We have to admit that our knowledge of these courses is rather restricted as well. For most of them, only the name of the course and/or the name of the professor is known. In this context, the notes of the ilmi asar-ı atika medhali [introduction to the science of antiquities] lectures given by the German archaeologist Eckhard Unger at Darülfünun [University] appear to be a valuable source that may help to clarify the notion of ilmi asar-ı atika and to shed light on the history of archaeological education in the Ottoman Empire.

20.Augmented reality (AR) of historic environments: Representation of Parion Theater, Biga, Turkey
Derya Güleç Özer, Takehiko Nagakura, Nikolaos Vlavianos
doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2016.66376  Pages 185 - 193
Similar to other fields in architecture, architectural representation involves adopting digital methods and digital data at a fast pace as in the case of cultural heritage preservation often referred to as digital heritage. Among these digital technologies, augmented reality (AR) techniques are well-known since they contribute a lot to the representation process. In addition to various sectoral uses, the use of AR tools and methods is important to study and research with regards to their integration in historical representation.
This study aims to represent historical heritage in terms of photogrammetry and AR methods for the Parion Theater, Biga, Turkey, dates back to 1st-2nd century A.D. and has been under excavation since 2005. There is a need for a high-tech visualization of cultural heritage because it is important to share and visualize data for such users as historians, archaeologists, architects, tourists and so on. The paper uses MULTIRAMA, a method previously developed by ARC Team (MIT) in 2013, which aims to represent the “unseen” to such users by documenting and visualising the site for use in this user-friendly app.
The method will support cultural heritage representation in the following stages: i) documentation (use of photogrammetric methods), ii) data process and modeling, (correcting 3D photogrammetric images using AR) and iii) presentation (3D reconstruction of the cultural heritage via an AR application). This holistic and low cost approach will focus on the problem of accurate reconstruction and representation in cultural heritage of Parion.



 
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