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ITU J Faculty Arch: 12 (1)
Volume: 12  Issue: 1 - March 2015
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1.Cover

Page I

EDITORIAL
2.Editorial
Gül Koçlar Oral
Pages I - II

DOSSIER EDITORIAL
3.Young Views on Urban Design
Nuran Zeren Gülersoy, İpek Akpınar, Pelin Öztürk Ekdi
Pages 1 - 2
Abstract | Full Text PDF

DOSSIER ARTICLES
4.A pedesterianization case in the context of public interest: A pedesterianization project in Eminönü historical peninsula (Hobyar neighborhood and surroundings)
Müge Çalışkan Aydın, Hatice Ayataç
Pages 3 - 13
Although the concept of public interest is being studied by various disciplines, it doesn’t have a specific definition. The lack of understanding the concept brings about conflicts both theoretically and in terms of how it empirically informs our understanding of this resource. As a result, the concept of public interest is not being used correctly because of its ethic and political dimensions.
As generating one of the most important basis for urban planing and urban design, the deficiency of the implementation of public interest causes negative impacts on urban development. The changes forming in the urban space affect the planning and design implementations, and public space is influenced as a result of these issues. Thus, public spaces are not utilized as intended and become inactive or transition spaces. Therefore, local governments try to solve these problems by generating new policies and various applications. Pedestrianization is one of the major tools of these applications.
This thesis emphasizes that the pedestrian spaces are only being used for transit purposes and do not carry or show the characteristics of urban public space and public interest. The area covering the pedestrianization project in Eminönü Hobyar Neighborhod, which is one of the most important historical districts of İstanbul, has been analyzed by survey and observation on site.
The results of the empirical study show that, in the process of designing public spaces; all the participation tools have to be used, the space must appeal to all users and public interest has to be emphasized. The fact that; emerging decisions are only able to provide urban and public benefit to the extent of their effect on urban design implementation tools, surfaces as a reality.

5.Measuring walkability in Istanbul Galata Region
Özlem Özer, Ayşe Sema Kubat
Pages 15 - 29
Pedestrian movement is one of the critical issues in urban design, but yet a determinate method for evaluating the attractiveness of an area for walkability has not been established. This paper presents the findings of a comprehensive study on walkability, developed on a historical centre of Istanbul, named Galata that has become segregated in recent years.
This study has researched the possible effects of the environmental variables on the levels of activity in urban spaces. The aim is to shed light on key variables that affect the attractiveness of an area for pedestrian movement, which in turn can help to develop an objective methodology to evaluate walkability. Within the context of the study, the existing pedestrian movement patterns in Galata have been observed and a range of variables have been determined to analyze the relationships.
The data recorded in this study have been analyzed with a multiple regression analysis, in which pedestrian movement levels are considered as the dependent variable. The result of the regression analyses has generated a model that accounts for 0,60 of the variation in pedestrian movement. According to the findings of the model, pedestrian movement levels have been explained with three out of five variables: safety, accessibility (space syntax integration values) and land use pattern. The method and the findings of this study constitute an analytical model that could shed fresh light for future research on walkability as well as for evaluating proposals to regenerate historical city centers that have lost their vitality.

6.The evaluation of the integration of industrial heritage areas to urban landscape: The case study of Sumerbank Kayseri cotton factory
Özlem Kevseeroğlu Durmuş, Ayşe Sema Kubat
Pages 31 - 36
The aim of this study is to develop an urban design strategy for the revitalization of post- industrial areas and the railway line in Kayseri –an industrialized city in Central Anatolia, Turkey. With the developments in 1930s, Kayseri became one of the modern cities of the Turkish Republic. In parallel with the world’s history of industrialization, Kayseri Sümerbank Cotton Factory was established in 1935 nearby the rail line in order to benefit from transportation and market- place facilities. The current design of the Factory is characterized by the hostile layout of the railway tracks, which inhibits pedestrian access and segregates the area from the city center. This segregated circumstance is evaluated and new de- sign strategies are developed with the aim of converting the isolated area into an innovative park design including sustainable, mixeused functions for creating a pedestrian-friendly environment. The basic concepts and the methods of Space syntax are adapted to develop a new strategy for this Brownfield site by analyzing the relationship between the urban form, the pattern of movement and space use. The proposed design project is an integrated approach to land-use, transportation, green space and sustainable development that will create a framework for the future growth of the City of Kayseri and lead to a vibrant and livable city with an enhanced quality of urban life.

7.Urban sections
Nurgül Yardım, Orhan Hacıhasanoğlu
Pages 37 - 51
Today, the perception of layered transportation infrastructure has to be merged with the architecture and urban design. Especially the underground transportation modes affect the grounds of the city. This study focuses on investigating the relations of grounds and the transportation infrastructure. Exploring the inter- action level of urban spaces with the transportation systems in terms of their expansions below and above the ground is the problem itself. Moreover finding a relation between urban spaces, transportation hubs and their typologies and how these typologies shaping urban grounds in the transportation context. After that, İstanbul is the case area of analyzing the urban land with respect to ground and underground relations and typologies that have examined. The selected zones of İstanbul for showing the relation between ground and transportation have the major quality of being in the networks of city transportation system and these are supported by the map called ‘typology mapping’.

8.Fringe belts in the process of urban planning and design: Comparative analyses of Istanbul and Barcelona
Dalya Hazar, Ayşe Sema Kubat
Pages 53 - 65
Throughout history, many heuristic approaches have been used to maintain an efficient development in urban planning. One of these approaches is urban morphology. Urban morphologists and geographers have been studying urban fringe belt concept since the last half of the century; however, it is not a well-known concept in planning and design scales. Understanding the effects of different planning policies on fringe areas, their locations and functions are crucial to grasp the value they redound to the city. In this study, several concepts were evaluated by a scoring system to understand these effects; and by this method, fringe belts of Istanbul and Barcelona have been determined and compared. Urban fringe belts are the urban entities, which have been created between the building cycles at urban periphery, then embedded within the city during the urbanization process. Fringe belts are usually urban heritages and ecologic corridors which also have tourism potential and importance in terms of the traditionalism and sense of permanency. Besides, these areas are the buffer zones which protect nature and rural areas from the negative effects of the city. However, as a result of the rapid population increase and need for new development plots, especially inner fringe belt areas which locate at the city center have been seen as new development areas. This situation which is called fringe belt alienation has taken as the main problem and evaluated in this study. For a well city development, these areas should be taken into consideration as urban entities in urban planning and design processes and should have enforcement on decision makers. Protection of the fringe character can create an urban quality, an inheritance to be left in the future.

9.Cultural/creative industries in Istanbul: Beyoğlu case
Fatma Pelin Öztürk Ekdi, Hale Çıracı
Pages 67 - 82
This paper aims to highlight the spatial distribution and locational criteria of cultural and creative industries rising as strategic urban management tools in Istanbul.
In the scope of the research, to gain insight into the cultural/creative industries, in-depth analysis was conducted to investigate the locational choices and spatial distribution of such industries. Furthermore, to demonstrate the existing pattern of the cultural/creative sectors in the city, site analysis and extensive interviews were held in Beyoğlu where an agglomeration has existed since the 19th century. The case-study results demonstrate the relationship between place and creative production, and the role of place in the location preferences of these industries. The outcome of the research will contribute to further studies on these industries and will influence the future strategies of Istanbul Greater Municipality and how
it develops cultural/creative industries.

10.Changes of urban structure in the Cihangir neighborhood: Some proposals for re-designing the area
Özlem Öztel Ağsakallı, Nuran Zeren Gülersoy
Pages 83 - 105
The study based on the master thesis with the same title (Öztel, 2007), initially investigates the attempts made in Europe and in Turkey for the conservation and development of the historical residential district. This investigation clearly indicates that conservation of the historical pattern and an urban identity developing in time from that pattern is the most important point that should be considered. The local analyses conducted in order to develop the framework for the urban design project, in Cihangir District. In addition, it has tried to obtain data on the social pattern of Cihangir Neighborhood within Cihangir District. The urban identity of the district was also explored in detail under the headings “urban identity elements developing from man-made environment”, “urban identity elements developing from natural environment” and “urban identity elements developing from social environment”.
It has attempted to highlight the changes that took place in the physical and social structure of Cihangir Neighborhood by comparing the analyses conducted in 2001 and 2006. After elaborating the changes that took place in the Neighborhood by using comparisons between the data applicable for two different time periods, the urban design projects are developed as the “Short Term Urban Design Project” and as the “Long Term Urban Design Project” that could be implemented over a longer period. As a consequence of this study, it was concluded that probable physical and functional arrangements that are feasible for the area must be put into use under the “Urban Design Manuals” to be developed more specifically for Cihangir Neighborhood.

11.Children psychology and outdoor play areas in Istanbul: Bakırköy & Beylikdüzü cases
Füsun Selçuk Kirazoğlu, İpek Akpınar
Pages 107 - 114
City contains a heterogeneous structure with the different profiles with different needs. Study at hand, this wide range of “child” section will be examined. The child’s relationship with the city is limited because it depends on the conditions that can move between users of the city. In recent years, cities have become virtually uninhabitable for children, especially in metropolitan density of buildings, traffic, vulnerability, such as the timelessness of the main obstacles almost confront the situation of children made them cannot face to city. However, the most basic need of the child’s social environment needed for the game and self-recognition is expected to meet in urban space.
In this context, urban areas, public open spaces designed for children, children’s playgrounds will be elaborated. For the child, the child’s current status with the design of these spaces will be considered. In this sense, the area selected as the study area, such as Istanbul’s fast-growing (built) and contains a significant portion of the housing stock in urban districts; Bakirkoy and Beylikdüzü. At this point, proposed as hypotheses, observations made on the basis of certain criteria, these two towns on the existing areas of public open spaces lack with the basic problem that does not meet the need for quality care.
In the study, definitions of a child and user will be made, and 2-6 years of age children will be the reference due to they are on a new period of relations with the external environment.

12.Assessment of urban identity characteristics in public places: A case study of Ortaköy Square
Başak Damla Erdoğan, Hatice Ayataç
Pages 115 - 125
The city square is the best interaction point between various inhabitants and the city. It is the place where urban identity is well grasped. This study aimed to understand if it is important to have urban identity characteristics to be a successful public place, or not. Therefore, urban identity and public place terms analyzed in the notion of identity and the notion of place. The significance of the city square emerged as a connection between urban identity and public place. To clarify the importance of the urban identity characteristics in successful public places, Ortaköy Square is chosen for the case study. The study area is a public place that the richness of urban identity characteristics was defined in the researches before. In this study the relationship between urban identity, public place and citizens was explained by using the methods which are literature research and photo-analysis. According to these analysis, it is proved that Ortaköy Square is a successful public place. Binding on the studies before, urban identity characteristics were pointed out. Ortaköy Square has all the components to reflect urban identity. It is cleared that urban identity is a necessity to be a successful public place and it exists especially in city squares.

THEORY ARTICLES
13.Appropriation in souvenir design and production: A study in museum shops
Çiğdem Kaya, Burcu Yançatarol Yağız
Pages 127 - 146
This study examines the product attributes of souvenirs – that, for both retailers and consumers, serve as mediums of cultural and historical representation – from the perspective of design. Souvenirs that visually or conceptually refer to authentic cultural and historical elements claim to contain the essence of a culture or geography, and constitute their own genre. They are the result of the commoditization of authenticity that involves the appropriation of the attributes of authentic cultural or historical elements by one of various techniques, and subsequently the reinterpretation and incorporation of these attributes into a mass-produced souvenir as layers of representation.
The aim of this study is to investigate the link between the physical attributes of souvenirs and their source material in order to describe the role of design in the commoditization process. The methodology of the research was a compositional analysis supported by content analysis. Shops of six popular museums in İstanbul and İzmir were selected as sample sites and their contents’ physical properties – such as size, texture, color, form, production technique, choice of material, and intended function – were studied to identify the appropriation techniques employed in the creation of counter-top souvenirs whose representational attributes reinterpret or reconstruct those of a reference element. These techniques include (1) surface treatment and condensing attributes of a source into graphics, (2) fragmenting, isolating, and scaling authentic patterns or graphics, (3) iconization and replicating an authentic source, (4) reproducing the effect of time and patina, and (5) reinterpreting the original function or redesigning the content in contemporary form.

14.Perceived values of web-based collective design platforms from the perspective of industrial designers in reference to Quirky and OpenIDEO
Milad Hajiamiri, Fatma Korkut
Pages 147 - 159
Web-based collective design platforms are virtual environments which highly rely on large-scale participation of people from diverse backgrounds in different phases of the design process. Understanding and motivating participants is important to enhance the diversity of solutions and approaches in such platforms. This study investigates the motivation factors for the designer members of the crowd, and explores the perceived values of these platforms from the perspective of industrial designers. An empirical study based on semi-structured interviews with novice industrial designers was conducted in reference to two collective design platforms, Quirky and OpenIDEO. The study reveals six major values emphasized by the designers: Supportiveness, collectiveness, appreciativeness, responsiveness, trustworthiness, and tangibility of outcome. The findings indicate that the value of collectiveness may be interrelated with the values of supportiveness, appreciativeness and responsiveness. Trustworthiness is a complex construct; participation quality, evaluation quality, reward system, intellectual property and past performance are the related issues brought to focus by designers. The tangibility of outcome may provide a useful reference for re-interpreting the perceived values in accordance with the type of the collective platform.

15.Towards new sources for industrial product design curriculum: Collectivism and social network
Koray Gelmez, Hümanur Bağlı
Pages 161 - 179
Design education is an open platform where new approaches can be implemented due to the experimental nature of design. This paper includes two separate projects whose common ideas are experimentalism and up-to-dateness. They were conducted in the Department of Industrial Product Design at Istanbul Technical University. Each section covers one project including related concepts and terms, description of the process, outcomes and discussion. First section stresses a collective design activity conducted in Basic Design course. Second one discusses a newly introduced method of developing personas by using a social network website. Hence, this paper reporting and analyzing these projects and their results can be considered as a prospect; and inspiration and source for the future studies in design education.

16.Scenario-based land use estimation: The case of Sakarya
Fatih Terzi
Pages 181 - 203
This paper presents scenario-based modelling of urban land use which stem from interactions of the urban functions of Sakarya, one of the most important city for agricultural production and a vulnerable region in terms of natural resources and seismicity in Turkey. The purpose of the paper is to estimate the future land use pattern of Sakarya and discuss the environmental effects of alternative spatial policies. ‘Whatif?’ approach which allows the users to develop various scenarios, provide a basis to measure the impact of new development areas on natural environment and revise the policies easily in relation to the land use estimation model results and future urban development pattern.

17.Proposals for redevelopment of Haliç Shipyards from the perspective of local economic development
Cem Beygo
Pages 205 - 219
The purpose of the local economic development is to increase quality of life by providing economic development on local scale. Local development is an improvement process that is constituted with the participation of public, business groups and non-governmental organizations to ensure economic improvement and create employment opportunities. This study aims to propose local economic development strategies for Haliç Dockyards in Golden Horn, Istanbul for to increase the quality of life of the neighborhood residents and economic growth in the Haliç Basin as a region. In the article, local development strategies in harmony with the historical and cultural texture and the natural environment on the case of the historical Halic Dockyards located in the center of Istanbul Metropolitan Area (IMA) are developed. Within the scope of article two Port Restoration Projects are examined. These are; Antalya Old Harbour Yacht Marina Project Kaleici and Hamburg HafenCity Inner City Development Project.
These two projects are selected as case study areas due to the technical, cultural similarities with Haliç Shipyard. As a result, a local economic development proposal for Haliç Shipyard is developed by taking into consideration the approaches that obtained from the examination of these two case study areas and some criteria related to local economic development.

18.Institutionalization of disaster risk discourse in reproducing urban space in Istanbul
Miray Özkan Eren, Özlem Özçevik
Pages 221 - 241
Government and real estate sector is utilizing “disaster risk discourse” as an ideological tool to legitimize the ongoing rush for urban redevelopment in Turkey. This article aims to explain “how” “disaster risk discourse” is institutionalized and became the primary tool in reproducing urban space.
We argue that, the ongoing “disaster risk discourse” defining the neoliberal urban transformation in Turkey is a versatile tool serving for state’s ideological, political and economical interests. These interests include defining redistributive and social policies, organisation of land-based interest groups, managing conflicts related to attempted urban strategies and centralisation of the power.
Istanbul clearly illustrates the institutional dynamics of urban redevelopment policies and formation of “disaster risk discourse”. Therefore, in this article we will analyse the urban political processes in the areas subject to “Law no. 6306, for the Regeneration of Areas under Disaster Risk” in relation to aforementioned dynamics. The article is based on the findings of the research carried for the PhD Thesis on “Dynamics of Reproduction of Urban Space in Istanbul”.

19.Women, social housing and urban spaces: Places to dwell and places where women are being attacked on their way home
Cemile Tiftik, İlker Turan
Pages 243 - 255
Urbanization and population increase in the cities have led to crime and violence; specifically, high levels of physical, sexual and non-physical violence are committed against women, children and older people which are the vulnerable groups of society. Hence, the issue of violence against vulnerable people became an inseparable part of studies concerning women and urban space.
In this study our subject is examined by first providing a brief literature review on gender issues and women in urban space, urban violance, defensible space and crime prevention by design. A case study is presented together with observations and determinations regarding Bezirganbahçe -a TOKİ (Bureau for Social Housing Administration) Social Housing Development in Istanbul, Turkey- and the case has been analyzed in terms of security and safety measures within the context of urban violence and women. A questionnaire has been conducted with 100 people and 68 of them were included in the statistical evaluation of samples. It is found out that while the settlement is considered secure with reference to natural disasters and accidents, it was considered insecure in terms of crime.
The main objective of this study is that most social housing settlements of TOKİ that have been rapidly constructed in cities in Turkey has received criticism must be scientifically evaluated.

20.On informal developments
İrem Mollaahmetoğlu Falay
Pages 257 - 267
Through the last fifty years in most of the world, illegal-unplanned-unde- signed-informal housing/ settlements-informal architectures contemporary vernacular architecture, was produced by using common sense but was created independently from each other. We speculate on the concept “vernacular” once more and claim that informal settlements with its simple solutions, local materials and conditions match with the definition of the “vernacular”. These parasites like informal architectures make big contribution to the planned city. Informal settlements with their way of adaptations and characteristics of growth and may produce motivating questions and resolutions. These settlements contain lessons about ecology, recycling, acclimatization, transiency, sustainability and flexibility which are current areas. In Turkey informal settlements are left to demolition by the architectural intelligentsia and authorities. It is possible to conserve informal areas without losing their quality of life in both building and urban scales. Utopia for some architects has a proposed structure of future cities as collaged views and layers and are provoking a new understanding of today’s metropolis. Most motivating utopian city projects are unfinished, open to contributions, addible and transformative ones. Only informal settlements may be representing better architectural and urban qualities being one of the main sources of architectural knowledge on all scales.

21.Post-disaster shelter design and CPoDS
Belinda Torus, Sinan Mert Şener
Pages 269 - 282
Post-disaster management and reconstruction are complex processes which have many phases and actors working in order to recover the damage. Sheltering is one of the many problems in post-disaster management. Disasters leave tens of thousands homeless each year in need of rapid solutions for mass-housing or sheltering.
In Turkey, earthquakes occur frequently and cause heavy damage in settlements. Preparedness for these earthquakes and ability of rapid recovery play crucial roles in order to minimize the damage. Lessons learnt from previous experiences such as Kocaeli and Van earthquakes in Turkey in 1999 and 2011 respectively are valuable.
Post-disaster shelter with a variety of features to meet the needs of the survivors is designed. In the need of very large numbers of shelters, the accumulation of ideas and projects produced create a valuable library both in unit and neighbor- hood scale. Different projects used different criteria in order to design these shelters. All these criteria are taken into consideration and evaluated and with previous earthquake experiences a set of criteria is selected. The projects produced in ITU’s graduate program are assessed according to the selected criteria, producing alternative houses for different user-household scenarios and formation of the modules.
CPoDS (Container Post-Disaster Shelters) is also detailed which is a tool to generate temporary shelters with containers. The generation is made by a productive system which produces alternatives for different communities.



 
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