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ITU J Faculty Arch: 11 (1)
Volume: 11  Issue: 1 - June 2014
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1.Cover

Page I

EDITORIAL
2.Editorial
Tüzin Baycan
Pages I - II

DOSSIER EDITORIAL
3.Cities at risk
Seda Kundak
Pages 1 - 4
Abstract | Full Text PDF

DOSSIER ARTICLES
4.Risk governance: Application to urban planning
Ortwin Renn, Andreas Klinke
Pages 5 - 19
Urban planning faces multiple risks: they range from natural disasters, fires, floods, building code violations to social risks such as vandalism, crime, social disorientation, and others. These risks often interact with each other and cannot be dealt with in isolation. As a means to identify, assess and manage multiple risks, concepts of “risk governance” have been developed that promise to provide integrative and comprehensive tools to deal with urban risks. The notion of risk governance pertains to the many ways in which multiple actors, individuals and institutions, public and private, deal with risks. It includes formal institutions and regimes and informal arrangements. The paper will first develop an adaptive and integrative model of risk governance and applies this model to the risks of urban planning. After a short summary of the roots of risk governance, key concepts, such as “simple, uncertain, complex and ambiguous risks will be discussed. The main emphasis will be on each of the five phases of risk governance: pre-assessment, interdisciplinary assessment, risk evaluation; risk management and risk communication.

5.Challenges and opportunities for building urban resilience
Weıchselgartner Juergen, Ilan Kelman
Pages 20 - 35
In science, the resilience concept has increasingly been embraced as a framework for disaster-related work. As a result, policy supports ‘resilient communities’ programs. The current transition from a ‘descriptive’ scientific concept explaining the state of a system to a ‘normative’ agenda applied by local authorities faces various challenges. To contribute to the A|Z journal’s special issue on Cities at Risk, this paper argues that it is crucial to address and explain these challenges in order to effectively increase resilience. It examines some theoretical foundations and underlying assumptions of the resilience concept and highlights some challenges associated with practical application in urban locations. Most importantly, the chronic needs and root causes of vulnerability will remain unsolved and will continue to generate vulnerable groups as long as efforts to increase resilience ignore the preconditions and root causes of (what is effectively social and political) vulnerability. Building resilience in cities provides opportunities to address under-studied elements, to gain understanding about the historical and socio-political processes that create and maintain social vulnerabilities, and to develop designs capable of identifying options for intervention and leverage points that can move communities toward less vulnerable development pathways.

6.Urban resilience: A framework for empowering cities in face of heterogeneous risk factors
Adriana Galderisi
Pages 36 - 58
As remarked in the presentation of the special issue of the A|Z Journal - Cities at risk - the increasing losses due to natural hazards, often combined with technological ones, let arise the need for new approaches addressed to evaluate vulnerability and resilience of cities in face of hazard factors, in order to better drive disaster mitigation policies.

Tacking up this challenge, this contribution focuses on the “multifaceted” concept of resilience that, bridging different research fields (ecology, sustainability, risk, climate change), can play a key-role for enhancing cities’ capacity to deal with the heterogeneous factors currently threatening them: climate change, individual and coupled hazards, from scarcity of resources to environmental degradation. In detail, based on the in-depth analysis of the capacities of a resilient system and of the different models of resilience up to now carried out, an interpretative model of Urban Resilience has been outlined. Such a model represents a methodological tool for driving planners and decision-makers in building up resilient cities, enabling them to frame, into a comprehensive approach, the currently fragmented policies addressed to tackle different issues: from the climate change to the complex chains of hazards; from the environmental decay to the scarcity of natural resources.

7.Urban geographies of vulnerability and resilience in the economic crisis era – the case of Athens
Kalliopi Sapountzaki, Christos Chalkias
Pages 59 - 75
Government debt crisis and recession in Greece cause social, economic and demographic changes that increase human and social vulnerability to natural and climate change hazards, also to “forgotten” but re-emerging social risks (e.g. poverty, malnutrition, homelessness). Human and social vulnerability heightens further due to increase of the institutional, i.e. declining capacity of institutions to respond effectively to stressors. Resilience and adaptations that are performed as deliberate or uncontrolled reaction to increasing vulnerability result in vulnerability redistribution which only rarely turns to the benefit of the most vulnerable. Frequently, resilience performances become accountable for the emergence of new hazards and exposure as well as unfair vulnerability transference.

The present paper deals with the city of Athens and attempts to: (1) reveal the enhanced spectrum of risks, forms of exposure, and vulnerability in the city as a result of the crisis; (2) elevate the multiplying effect of the crisis on human and social vulnerability; (3) map the stressor-independent part of social-human vulnerability in Athens and (4) elevate adaptation/resilience resulting in vulnerability (re)allocation in time and space. Except of the theoretical background the paper turns to advantage geo-statistical data, findings of social survey studies and information being available by electronic and print media.

8.The seismic risk in Istanbul: An innovative assessment method
Alessandro Demarchi
Pages 76 - 98
Over the last century, an unprecedented settlement expansion, generated by an exceptional world population growth, has made cities all around the world always more prone to disasters. Natural phenomena, such as earthquakes, could be potentially more dangerous when hit megalopolis and their neighborhoods particularly fragile. Amid the most important global cities, Istanbul is characterized by one of the highest levels of seismic risk. Within its territory, there are numerous highly vulnerable neighborhoods. Some of them are located around İstiklal Caddesi, famous pedestrian street, which is being visited by a great number of people (both Turkish city-users and international tourists) twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week. Part of the old and historical neighborhood of Pera/Galata, in the today’s Beyoğlu Belediyesi, it is a highly attractive zone full of economic activities, acting as heart of the city. Since the importance of this area, its specific seismic risk has been assessed using two different approaches, one traditional and one proposed by the author, which have provided two different responses. The “standard method”, based on generic variables applicable to the whole Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, shows how this zone is not amongst the most risky area of the city. Whereas, “the experimental method”, calibrated on more precise information and more specific variables typical of the case study area, demonstrates that the level of seismic risk is significant. Finally, a scheme of urban/district emergency evacuation system is here proposed indicating some shelter areas and classifying the streets, inside the case study area, according to their level of safety.

9.Vulnerability to earthquake in Istanbul: An application of the ENSURE methodology
Funda Atun, Scira Menoni
Pages 99 - 116
The paper aims at introducing the reader to vulnerability to earthquake in Istanbul based on the methodology developed within the ENSURE project1 where Istanbul has been chosen as one of the external case study areas by the courtesy of Seda Kundak who collaborated within the POLIMI project team. The result given in this paper was attained in three stages. The first stage includes the primary results attained during the ENSURE project. The second stage started regarding to the request coming from the Italian Civil Protection and Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency in Turkey (AFAD in Turkish abbreviations) for implementing the ENSURE vulnerability assessment methodology in Istanbul. The second stage helped to indicate the missing data, as not all the data are available to allow parameters to be applied. Therefore, in the last stage, the missing data set was collected during the fieldwork in Istanbul in August 2012 and the focus moved into systemic vulnerability and accessibility analysis during emergency phase after occurrence of an earthquake.

The paper starts with the description of the multi-scale vulnerability framework developed within the ENSURE project. It is followed by the brief description of the case study area Istanbul. Then, in the final part, the result achieved in three stages is given within the matrices.

10.Risk perception in Istanbul: An earthquake-prone city
Seda Kundak, Handan Türkoğlu, Alper İlki&775;
Pages 117 - 137
Risk perception on natural hazards in Turkey has been an emerging topic after of 1999 Kocaeli and Duzce earthquakes. The motivation lies behind the fact that it was the first time in the Turkish history, disaster mitigation had been considered as the responsibility of not only the government, but also all stake holders. Therefore, awareness campaigns, public participation, volunteering and increasing individual capacity against earthquakes have become hot topics to have a fresh start in building resilient communities. This paper aims to reveal earthquake risk perception and preparedness level of Istanbul residents. The results of two recent surveys on risk perception which were conducted in 2008 and 2013 are evaluated according to measures taken, willingness to pay for a safer house and trust to authorities. The findings of both surveys underline that there is an improvement in risk perception and measures taken to reduce risks related with earthquakes.

THEORY ARTICLES
11.Design games: A conceptual framework for dynamic evolutionary design
N. Onur Sönmez, Arzu Erdem
Pages 138 - 157
Most evolutionary computation (EC) applications in design fields either assume simplified, static, performance-oriented procedures for design or focus on well-defined sub-problems, to be able to impose problem-solving and optimization schemes on design tasks, which render known EC techniques directly applicable. However, in most design situations, well-defined and static problems are not given, but must be constructed from messy situations, and the definition of a problem takes place during the solution process. Thus, evolutionary design requires contextual and dynamic problem definition and evaluation procedures, which has not yet been realized through EC. This study sets out for a critical reappraisal of EC for design, and proposes a conceptual framework as a research tool for the exploration of dynamic evolutionary design. After a critical review of EC in design, the article discusses its claims with reference to design theory, outlines the framework, and examines dynamic evolutionary strategies and required intelligent technologies. Although tackling a practical task, or solving the problem of dynamic evolution are not aimed in this study, an experimental application based on the framework will be presented in detail, to exemplify a mapping between the rather abstract concepts of the framework and the operators of a specific evolutionary algorithm.

12.The role of interpretation in basic design
Ethem Gürer, Mine Özkar, Gülen Çağdaş
Pages 158 - 173
Interpreting is rarely discussed in the context of basic design, which is mostly deemed as an overly rationalized teaching of the fundamentals of designing. This paper sheds light on the relation of designing and interpreting based on design protocols where novice architectural design students are asked to create basic organizations and write about their processes. Utilizing the basic tension between deeds and words, we explore and identify an articulated relation between acting and interpreting.

13.A statistical data analysis for increasing the kitchen design performance
Deniz Ayşe Yazıcıoğlu
Pages 174 - 184
The kitchen space is one of the most studied areas for increasing the interior design performance. This is because of; being the most important working area compared to other spaces and expected to show a superior performance in terms of many criteria. The scope and purpose of the study was identified as; to obtain the statistical data describing mathematical correlation between the kitchen layout and total floor area and to present the results belonging to these data in the manner of an analysis table that will help designer to decide correctly at the stage of determination of kitchen layout. Meanwhile at the beginning, a literature survey was conducted for determination of what all kitchen layouts are as the study methodology. Later based on these kitchen layouts, 1.309 kitchen projects were examined and statistical data were obtained belonging to each projects’ total floor area and kitchen layout. At the last stage, data analysis table was created that will help designer to determine the kitchen layout by identifying mathematical correlations between these statistical data. Through this study, designer can see how mathematical correlation is available between kitchen layout and total floor area over the statistical results. This will also enable the realization of a high design performance project that will help to make a more correct decision in determination of kitchen layout.

14.Curriculum development in interior architecture education: ITU case
Özge Cordan, Emine Görgül, Bahadır Numan, Benek Çinçik
Pages 185 - 197
This paper discusses the revision processes of Istanbul Technical University - ITU Department of Interior Architecture undergraduate program curriculum.

In this content, the paper commences with a brief introduction about the history of interior design education and mentions the earlier models that were deployed both in global and local terms. Then it is pursued by focusing on ITU case. Although the existing undergraduate curriculum of ITU Department of Interior Architecture anchors on interactive, interdisciplinary and integrated program; yet correlated with the reasons, aims and action plans of the curriculum revision a studio-centered, student-oriented, leading, contemporary program that enables inter-/trans-/cross-disciplinary approaches are intended to be accommodated in the novel proposal by asserting the past and grasping today.

The paper opens the reasons, aims, developed strategies and implementation steps of the undergraduate program curriculum revision of the ITU Department of Interior Architecture, into discussion.



 
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