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ITU J Faculty Arch: 10 (2)
Volume: 10  Issue: 2 - December 2013
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EDITORIAL
1.Editorial
Yurdanur Dülgeroğlu Yüksel
Pages I - II

DOSSIER EDITORIAL
2.Sustainable landscape planning and safe environment
Sadık C. Artunç
Pages 1 - 3
Abstract | Full Text PDF

DOSSIER ARTICLES
3.Shifts in public open space notion by new landscape contexts
Ebru Erbaş Gürler
Pages 4 - 14
The nature of cities underwent a big change starting from industrial revolution to nowadays. Besides, the life style and expectations of city-dwellers and the open space usages have been changing constantly by globalization and technological developments. Public open spaces also have been under the influence of all these dynamics. Furthermore, the transformation in the theoretical framework of ‘landscape’ also helped to emerge a new type of public open space characteristics during last three decades. Together with the new perspective of landscape, new concepts rose in the design of public open spaces.

The study doesn’t only aim to draw attention to significant changes in the notion of city and public spaces and also addresses the effects of the new urban landscape contexts on changing public open spaces. Within this scope, the study first defines the reasons behind the changing city and public spaces, second explains the landscape and its new contexts, and third describes new types of public spaces in urban landscapes reviewing the literature of the public space and landscape theory in last three decades. In the conclusion, the paper summaries the key issues mentioned in the study and try to give clues for urban and landscape design practices.

4.Resilient cities and adaptation to climate change: Chicago metropolitan area as a case study
Sinem Gürevin, Y. Çağatay Seçkin
Pages 15 - 32
Since cities formed, either men or nature has destroyed them through out history. However, they were always rebuilt and rebounded. After about 1800, such resilience became a nearly universal fact of urban settlement around world. Urban disaster takes many forms and can be categorized in many ways, like scale of destruction, human troll, natural disasters and etc. Because of these kinds of disasters, the cities need to be resilient and need to adapt upcoming conditions. Although there are many different forms of disasters, this study is more concerned about the ones that are caused by humans and that can be prevented or at least with the ones which something still can be done about. In other words, this study is about importance of resilient cities and adapting existing cities to the future. This research is about energy efficient buildings, clean and renewable energy resources, improved transportation options, reduced waste and industrial pollution and adapting to new conditions so that cities can be sustainable and their residents can continue their urban life without extreme shocks and stresses.

While studying resilience and adaptation, Chicago Metropolitan Area will be the case study. Chicago’s main struggle begins with the Great Fire in 1871, and continues with Great Depression in 1930. The World War II effects and still continues with problems that are caused by people’s modern lifestyle, like heat islands or greenhouse gas emissions. For more than fifteen years, Chicago has been promoting the transformation into an environmentally friendly city. From green roofs to recycling, Chicago continues to take steps toward resiliency against climate change. Currently, not only the local government but also the business community and residents at large have engaged in a multitude of key partnerships and efforts to support the city’s goal. Scientists, businesses and governments around the world agree: climate change is one of the most serious issues facing the Earth today. In the last 50 years, levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere have risen 25 percent; levels of methane, an even more potent greenhouse gas, have more than doubled. Because of these increases in heat-trapping gases, under a high-emissions scenario, recent predictions show that by the end of the century, annual average temperature could increase up to four degrees Celsius, and every single part of the Earth will be affected with climate change. Developed countries started to take action against climate change. They are developing strategies that can be applied by even developing countries, such as Turkey, and surely these strategies can be used as a road map to strength Turkish cities against incoming climate change.

5.Reestablishing the relation of Istanbul with Bosphorus
Birge Yıldırım
Pages 33 - 50
Throughout the history, public spaces of Istanbul were developed near the seashores. By the end of the 20th century Istanbul's relation with the sea was severed by new transformations. Especially the Coastal Line Project, which was designed as a part of developmentalist policies at the 20th century, has blocked the relation between the land and the sea. In this study the coastline of Bosphorus between the two bridges will be examined by analyzing different sections at different districts. Especially cul-de-sacs (blind alleys), landfill areas and highways ending up at or opening to the Bosphorus, will be documented. It is aimed to create a new map of the Bosphorus exploring the new linkages between sea and land. The study will generate useful design proposals on urban fabric and coastal land uses by focusing on the vital locations in terms of accessibility to water. As a result, new interventions to link the sea with the land and to improve the everyday life of the city will be proposed, in order to reconfigure the relationship between the city and water.

6.Nature based zoning for the coastal area of Bursa
Sultan Gündüz, Gülşen Güler Aytaç
Pages 51 - 66
Man’s demands on Turkey’s coastline are increasing and this is common to coastal areas world-wide. This is because of population growth and economic development. Transport, industrial, housing, energy production and infrastructure development and tourism are transforming Turkey’s coastal areas. Yet still these coastal areas are treated as if they are an unlimited resource. The answer is to plan development in relation to the coastal landscape’s capacity, based on careful understanding of its character and the area’s natural resources. Planning based on sustaining ecological integrity is a priority. This study proposes planning policies which identify different categories of zones and interaction between sub-zones. These will help define densities and location of sustainable land use development and management. In this way there can be a balance of conservation and development. The study focuses on the city of Bursa in the Sea of Marmara region because it can contribute to implementation of the 1/100000 Bursa Environmental Plan and because Bursa is the fourth largest metropolitan area of Turkey. As a result of this study the basic principles of planning and management are determined for ensuring the sustainability, and use types and densities of the region.

7.Modeling land use/land cover conversion risk
Mehmet Akif Erdoğan, Hayriye Eşbah Tunçay, Süha Berberoğlu
Pages 67 - 80
Unsustainable conversions of land use and cover constitute the biggest threats to world’s ecosystems, therefore, understanding the past and future changes are critical in sustainable landscape planning. This study aims to generate a risk model of land use/land cover (LULC) conversions at a watershed scale. Big Meander Basin in Aegean Region of Turkey is the case study area. There are four analytical steps in the present work; (i) detecting LULC change in the basin between 1986 and 2002, (ii) generating a risk map of LULC conversions until 2002 (iii) determining the probable LULC conversions in the future, and (iv) generating an inclusive risk map by overlaying the up to date and probable LULC conversion risk maps. The results of the classifications demonstrated an increase of Water surfaces, Maquis, Fruit Orchards, Urban areas, and Bare soil areas. Meanwhile, Croplands and Forests decreased. The most critical conversions occurred in the form of agricultural intensification on wetland ecosystems. Also, the diminishing quality in the vegetation structure is requiring attention. LULC conversion risk analysis not only displayed the areas with high change risk but also displayed the priority areas for the protection, restoration and planning. Thus, this information can be used for generating more effective land use decisions especially at the urban rural interface.

8.Landscaping for earth-sheltered housing: A study on mud-roofed houses in Anatolia
Yasin Çağatay Seçkin, Nazire Papatya Seçkin
Pages 81 - 93
Traditional mud roofs are still used in various parts of the World, especially in areas of low to medium rainfall. They are popular because of their low cost, ease of construction, and high resistance to heat penetration. Construction materials required to build such roofs are also readily available.

In mud-roof construction, landscaping can also be a critical element of the overall design, which must be coordinated with all of the other layers of the roof, particularly the structural and waterproofing system as well as soil and drainage system. Landscaping surely enhances the attractiveness of mud-roofed houses, but it should not be thought of as a separate decorative feature or supplementary element to be added after the house is built. It has a very important role in the success of waterproofing and insulation systems of the house.

This paper presents both the major landscape concerns, which are unique to this type of construction, and the existing practice of the most builders. During this presentation, some roof attempts for improving the structural, thermal and water resistance properties of the traditional mud-roof are also discussed. Based on this discussion, an improved mud-roof section is introduced.

9.Landscape change and rural policy: An identity based approach to rural settlements
Meltem Erdem Kaya
Pages 94 - 110
Rural landscapes have been changed significantly in recent years. Today, the process of this change becomes more visible than ever before with the increased effects on rural localities. Land transformation, changing agricultural practices, technological innovations, growing urban influence and changing global market are considered to be the main drivers of this change. These changes have been linked to environmental degradation and altered rural landscape character. Thus preserving rural characteristics and localities became an important topic at the governmental level as a part of rural development agenda.

There have been several studies concentrating on local characteristics of rural areas. As a part of this mainstream, identity based concepts have been investigated for the last few years to find plausible ways of approaching rural problems.

This paper offers an approach to understand spatial characteristics of landscape identity of rural settlements. With this respect, this paper focuses on Sirince (Izmir) Village, as its case study, which is analyzed through natural, built and socio-cultural characteristics. In the context of the research, Turkey’s rural development strategy and its evolving body is discussed to find plausible ways of integrating identity based concepts into sustainable development plans. In relation to these, literature review, maps, and data collecting from site visits are utilized to frame the method of the research.

10.Interface between urban and rural: Determination of use status for Göktürk Forest Nursery
Dinemis Kuşuluoğlu, Gülşen Güler Aytaç
Pages 111 - 132
Istanbul, Turkey’s economic capital is in rapid change and development due to the increased population growth and spread. At this rapid change, the fringes become an important opportunity to establish the relationship between rural and urban and to meet the needs of people in terms of recreational requirements. The reserve areas, which are at the urban boundaries, such as 2-B lands1, forest nurseries, open mining areas and post-industrial sites have significant potential for re-use after losing their functions. Göktürk Forest Nursery was founded to meet the needs for production of forest trees and ornamental plants in 1969. Today it is in a transitional phase of urban development, changing into a place of interaction of both urban forms and rural landscape. Göktürk Forest Nursery should be appraised by using sustainable landscape planning and design processes to consider its physical, ecological, social and economic potential. This study examines the new use proposals for Göktürk Forestry Nursery at three scales; macro-scale analysis considering the 1/100.000 scale Istanbul Environmental Master Plan, medium-scale relation analysis considering Göktürk scale; and micro-scale analysis with Questionnaire method and a matrix of comparison between different urban green type scenarios for its future development.

11.Productive landscapes and resilient cities
Meliz Akyol, Hayriye Eşbah Tunçay
Pages 133 - 147
Creating a resilient urban matrix has become a fundamental issue due to natural and human caused disasters, economic and ecological crises last few decades. Subsequently, integrating productivity in cities via landscape and planning tools and developing a sustainable infrastructure become inevitable. This study explores the role of productive landscapes in creating resilient cities. More specifically, the paper focuses on urban agriculture as one of the major components of productive landscapes. Pioneering models of productive landscapes and urban agriculture go back to 19th century with the works of Ebenezer Howard, Le Corbusier, Frank Lloyd Right, and Ian McHarg. Obviously, cities have been blended with nature for centuries; the only difference now is that industrialization has made food production invisible. Istanbul is presented as the case study. Through the rich history of Istanbul, food has a strong influence on city’s image. It is still possible to see the traces of agricultural uses along the Theodesian Walls, and some old neighborhoods. Some foresighted organizations and individuals promote agriculture in inner urban areas. However, dealing with rapid urbanization problems, agricultural lands have been transformed into settlement areas in time. As we are in the age of sustainability, combining agriculture with the new technology and recent architectural trends as well as sustainable master plans incorporating productive landscape concepts will encourage urban agriculture in the city, hence creating more resilient urban environments.

12.Urban stream enhancement - Revisiting urban streams of Istanbul
Fatma Ayçim Türer Başkaya
Pages 148 - 160
Capturing more than one hundred streams, stream network of Istanbul has got a noteworthy landscape potential. However, within the last fifty years, rapid urbanization and industrialization have brought about devastating impacts on the urban streams and suppressed their landscape potentials.

Considering these suppressed potentials, this study aims to develop regenerative landscape planning strategies for urban streams of Istanbul by gaining a multi-layered understanding of the interplay between historic watercourses and urbanization. Within this context, this study handles five major streams in Istanbul which are Kagithane, Cirpici, Kurbagalidere, Baltalimani and Goksu streams. These urban watercourses are selected as case studies, regarding their notable places in the urban memory and the diverse land cover types they have got in their impact areas.

By utilizing GIS technology and multi-criteria analysis, ecological, socio-cultural and economic potentials of the selected streams are evaluated according to six major parameters as size, necessity for intervention, land cover, accessibility, scenic potential-visibility and proximity to the features of urban memory.

In order to cope with the challenges of 21st century, cities should provide themselves with interdisciplinary studies and welcome innovative solutions to chaotic environmental issues. This study focuses on urban water courses in Istanbul as one of these chaotic issues and highlights that even the most degraded of landscapes are worthy of our stream enhancement efforts. Urban streams have a power to improve not only the environmental quality but also the quality of life in Istanbul and this study is an attempt to highlight the importance of regenerative landscape planning for urban streams and for the benefit of Istanbul megacity.

13.Exploring the potential uses of computer games in landscape architecture education
Muhammed Ali Örnek
Pages 161 - 177
Serious gaming approach and related researches shows that motivational and instructional features make computer games promising educational tools. With the pioneer of educational institutes, many researchers have focused in this potential use of computer games in learning. Even major of them have been seeking answers for educationally beneficial factors of computer games, some researchers have developed educational games in specific learning topics. This study aims to introduce serious game approach and its foundations like digital game-based learning. Additionally, an experimental study was conducted to explore potential uses of computer games in landscape education. In order to this study, a commercial computer game has been played by undergraduate landscape architecture students.

THEORY ARTICLES
14.Faculty office buildings as work environments: Spatial configuration, social interaction, collaboration and sense of community
Pınar Kılıç-Çalğıcı, Claudia Czerkauer-Yamu, Ela Çil
Pages 178 - 197
We aim to identify the role of spatial configuration in the social interaction, collaboration and sense of community at academia. We focus on the spatial configuration of three school buildings used by three different departments within the campus of a university in Izmir and utilize both spatial and social data. We have analyzed spatial data by Visual Graph Analysis (VGA) and searched for the spatial integration of the buildings with different plan typologies, but all have cell-based office configuration, which constitute linear plans with atrium, L-shaped and square with repeating floor plans. Social data is gathered by a questionnaire survey that is conducted with faculty members enquiring their office location in relation to spatial integration, sense of community, interaction and collaboration. We use correlation and regression analyses for the analyses of social data. Findings suggest that collaboration is independent of the plan typology but spatial integration promotes interaction and sense of community.

15.The performance comparison of fan-assisted Trombe wall system
Başak Kundakçı Koyunbaba, Zerrin Yılmaz
Pages 198 - 211
One of the various systems used for energy conservation in buildings is building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) Trombe wall system. This system is applied to the blind south facades of buildings to produce heat and electrical energy. In this paper, the energy performance comparison of fan-assisted single glass, double glass and a-Si semi-transparent PV module integrated on the Trombe wall façade of a model test room built in Izmir, Turkey has been carried out. The system has been operated during 19 - 21 January. The temperature variations at certain nodes where the temperature probes are placed have been evaluated. The measured values of inter-space, inlet and outlet air temperatures for single glass, double glass and photovoltaic module have been compared. The surface temperatures of the photovoltaic module and the thermal wall have also been evaluated. The comparison of the thermal performance for three modules has been made according to the experimental results. The change in electrical efficiency by surface temperature of the photovoltaic module has also been interpreted. According to the experimental results 10% of solar radiation has been transmitted through the semi-transparent photovoltaic module. Meanwhile, the electrical efficiency of PV cells can reach 4.5% according to the experimental results.

16.User accessibility optimization using genetic algorithm: aDA
Derya Güleç Özer, Sinan Mert Şener
Pages 212 - 230
The aim of this study is the optimization of user accessibility in architectural design using genetic algorithm. In order to define the problematic, literature is surveyed in several steps: (1) Spatial accessibility focusing user movements, (2) Genetic Algorithm and Optimization in architectural design, and (3) Algorithmic Distance Based Accessibility Model (aDA). Spatial accessibility is the concept which allows user to understand function, organization and spatial relationships and welcome them to participate in activities. In order to understand the concept, methods focusing accessibility in design and planning are studied in detail. The mentioned methods here are space layout planning, space syntax and wayfinding. This paper suggests a different look to these methods in the perspective of spatial accessibility, a further question is asked: Is it possible to optimize the user movement depending on these spatial accessibility criteria?

Focusing on user movements, it is aimed to optimize the route of a user to define the distance between two related spaces. Since the architectural space deals with various user types and various functional spaces, optimization is necessary to evaluate the movement. In this respect, genetic algorithm is a useful and well-known method for optimization in architecture. This paper aims to fill the gap in literature to offer a different method as optimization with genetic algorithms in architectural design.

The method introduced briefly here is “Algorithmic Distance Based Accessibility Model (aDA)”. It aims to define user and spatial accessibility in architectural design and depending on this, optimization of distances between spaces using genetic algorithm. In this developed model, user and spatial data is scripted depending on a list of criteria and distance optimization is performed by a genetic algorithm. These data are scripted based on a list of criteria that define the scope of the study and evaluated/disevaluated data, as well as tightens the solution pool based on these criteria. The method is evaluated on health campuses, two alternatives are generated and the results are stated.



 
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