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ITU J Faculty Arch: 1 (1)
Volume: 1  Issue: 1 - June 2004
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Gülsün Sağlamer, Hasan Şener, Mine İnceoğlu, Orhan Hacıhasanoğlu
Pages II - VI

2.After a symposium: Housing policies and applications examples from Turkey and France, 1950-2000
Ahsen Özsoy, Handan Dülger Türkoğlu
Pages 1 - 13
Abstract | Full Text PDF

3.Housing policy and housing systems in Turkey
Fulin Bölen
Pages 14 - 31
Housing is a process that evolves parallel to the changes in the social, economic and cultural conditions, whereas housing policies take long periods to be realised. What is more, the key players of the housing sector show great variety with respect to their points of view and approaches to housing. Housing consumers (users), housing producers (construction firms, engineers, architects), policy makers (central or local governments) each have different interests. A better understanding of the long run effects of housing policies and the influence of different interest groups in the implementation of these policies is necessary. The issue dealt in this paper concerns the underlying conditions that directed the housing policies which were implemented in Turkey afrer 1950‟s, the time when fast urbanisation started in the country. The paper analyses the policies that were developed in different periods and evaluates the housing systems that supplied different solutions of shelter.

4.Housing policies and practices: Examples of France 1950-2000
Alain Sarfati
Pages 32 - 46
If we can say that each country has a culture, a climate, different conditions of production, which permit it to display its specificity, its “exception”, then due to globalization we can say accurately that levels of life will be homogenized, and we will be under the influence of a great explosion of images. The French experience merits being examined in all its richness. The approach of this study will display seven points of view:
-• The quantitative problem to which France has been confronted during the last forty years.
-• The financial problem, which evolved from help to “stone” to help to “human”.
-• The land problem and its tools, the zones to be urbanized in priority, then the zones of
planned settlements, which permitted making a product from “earth”.
-• The problem of typologies: Collective premises, individual houses.
-• The problem of city planning from open planning to the realization of open or closed blocks.
-• The problem of construction techniques and their evolution in time.
-• The problem of architecture; architecture which is confined to the ideology of repetition
towards a praise of diversity.
Although the subject is wide, it permits us to understand better the ways which lead to the error and the ones which remain to be explored and to locate them. As a conclusion, a conviction: There is no conception of housing which may be an imaginary city concept. Talking about housing in an isolated manner means leaving the field to functionalism with all its destruction.

5.The relationship between politics and design in mass housing production
İhsan Bilgin
Pages 47 - 59
The relationship between politics and design in housing production has been evaluated by showing the housing sector in Turkey as working architects/without architecture. Therefore, architecture and design are exhibited as “being absent” and with “lack of appearing”.

Housing production in Turkey lives two points of break in the process of modernization: The beginning of the1950‟s and the middle of the1980‟s.The 1950‟s is when huge problems of quality, which would repeat in a pattern, began. The social character of Turkey answered these requirements by using its‟ own reflex, and a new small production mechanisms were introduced to the system. These mechanisms were organized to externalize architectural formations because of their nature. The break in the middle of the 1980‟s depended on the obstruction of these small production mechanisms and unproductivity. This break was wanted to solve by the trend of becoming bigger through scale of production, especially in the1990‟ s as a result of new legal, financial and organizational provisions. Organization models may be expected to operate the universal experiences of architectural formation using selection for settlement and design of housing units and buildings. Organization of production to select technology and materials. However, progress was realized contrary to these expectations and reproduction of relations based on small production in big organization were mentioned. This paper aims to demonstrate the physical results of non-affecting on architectural formations by evaluating examples.

6.Exploring the potentials of mass housing in terms of urbanisation
Hande Suher
Pages 60 - 78
In 1984, Mass Housing Law was accepted in order to meet the need of mass housing, to establish the methods and principles to be conformed, to develop industrialized construction techniques and tools, and to create and use a Mass Housing Fund for providing State subsidy. In 1987, the scope of the fund was enlarged and in 1988, by an amendment in the rules and regulations, as well as mass housing, office and workshops, tourism areas, small-scale industrial units and cooperatives of small business owners and craftsmen were included in the scope of the Fund. However, due to those changes, the Fund‟s support to mass housing is decreased. The definement of mass housing settlement areas by governers‟ offices, even those which are not included in the urban planning system and settlement rules, will increase urban population. Moreover the additional social and technical infrastructure, which was not in the scope of plans and programs causes supplementary work and budget problems. As it can be seen, mass housing is appraised only as a technical application tool. However, with a dynamic approach instead of a static one, mass housing should be used as an effective tool in the application of country and region wide settlement decisions. Mass housing should be developed as an application tool in constituting and appraisal of Turkey‟s settlement and new city policies. Mass Housing Credits should be directed to the regions having priority in development and the middle size cities where industry and industrial zones are supported, in order to use the suppporting effect of mass housing in urbanization. It seems necessary and obligatory to establish a Ministry of Urbanization for settlement policy and to convene a „Housing Congress‟ for improvement of the subject.

7.INSTITUTING DESIGN: Notes on the formal organization of design functions as an integral component of housing policy
Murat Balamir
Pages 79 - 94
Successful housing policy, besides efficient financing and relevant social programs, demand high-quality design performance. When public monitoring of housing has been subject of regulation. Two contrasting models of instituting design are those observed in England and France. These could be compared in terms of their organization of creative labour, identification of the design decisions and methods of justification, the role and the status of the designer, involvement of the end-user within the design process, its contributions to the social and cultural context, and organizational vulnerabilities. The British model seems to rest on ‘reliable repetition’, whereas the French experience depends on the working of ‘competetive innovativeness’. Without loosing the sight of contributions of the former, there is scope to initiate the underlying aspects of the latter model in Turkey.

8.The row house as an unfinished project of the modernization of Istanbul at the end of the 19th Century
Atilla Yücel
Pages 95 - 107
The row house is a housing type that existed among the settlement patterns of different societies, its history extending to the pre-industrialised period. In addition to the older examples, during the modern period and specifically after industrialisation, the row house had achieved a privileged status in most western cities as a house of the tradesman, worker, and in general of the middle class.

The Ottoman modernisation project shaped by the westernisation model, has also “imported” new housing patterns and typologies during the reformation of cities, adaptable to those new systems that encompassed the ownership system, changes in administration of cities, modernisation of roads and transportation systems. The row house has become the leading figure among those new types, and opened the way for the apartment type housing that is to follow.

This middle-class urban housing type that developed on the improved lands, planned building islands, and small lots of Istanbul after the mid 19th century, preserved its existence until the beginning of the 20th century. Yet, after the 1st World War, following the declaration of Ankara as the capital city and with the more recent urban modernisation development of Istanbul, after the 1950’s, the life span of the row house was finalised.

9.Tourists in Historic Towns: Urban Conservation and Heritage Management
Nur Akın
Pages 108 - 110
Tourists in Historic Towns: Urban Conservation and Heritage Management
Aylin Orbaşlı
E&FN SPON, Taylor & Francis Group, London and New York, 2000,
ISBN 0-419-25930-9 210 pp. Paperback

The book, based on a PhD thesis undertaken by Aylin Orbaşlı at the Institute of Advanced Architectural Studies, at the University of York from 1990 and subsequent studies by the author, focuses on medium sized historic towns that are established or emerging in the tourism market in both developed and developing countries. The relationship between conservation and tourism is further developed through the five case studies from Spain (Granada), England (York), Malta (Mdina), Turkey (Antalya) and Germany (Quedlinburg).

10.The Use and Abuse of Paper: Essays on Alvar Aalto
Orhan Hacıhasanoğlu
Pages 111 - 113
The Use and Abuse of Paper: Essays on Alvar Aalto
Kari Jormakka, Jacqueline Gargus, Douglas Graf Tampere University of Technology, Finland, 1999
ISBN 952-15-0267-3 (DATUTOP 20)
A5, 200 pp. Paperback, FIM 120, EUR 18, USD 20

This book was published as the 20th part of the DATUTOP (Department of Architecture Tampere University of Technology Occasional Papers) series in October 1999. The architecture of Aalto was defined as: Finninsh, human, democratic, anarchist, sensitive to the site, natural, organic, free-form, synthetic, random and intuitive in the preface written by Kari Jormakka. Different strategies of architectural criticism raging from formalist to post- structuralist had been used, giving a special reference to the architectural identity of Aalto.

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